CANDIDA
by
Dr. Jerry Glenn Knox BA, DC
author of the 497 page book
Love Thine Enemas & Heal Thyself
from
the
COLON THERAPY JOURNAL
June, 1999
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Candida has been treated successfully with diet and colon therapy. However, self diagnosis and treatment can be dangerous.  Do not use these treatments without first checking with  your Chiropractor, naturopath, MD or other physician licenced and qualified to advise you in these matters. The following information is given to help educate and share the truth about candidiasis. It is not a presciption for  treatment.
 

      The separation of reality and what exists in the real world has never been so contorted from what really is as it has become in health care within the last century in America. If you have candida, in almost every case,  you are eating antibiotic laced foods or taking, or have taken antibiotics. It is that simple. If you would get rid of it, eat correctly, eliminate all these unnatural additives. Only take antibiotics when you have an infection that life threatening or can do you serious harm if you don't take them. Antibiotic pills and shots  cause candidiasis. More drugs won't correct this problem. Believing that you are and can be well, then living correctly will cure candida.

   We  have all lived in darkness a long time. Millions of pounds of aspirin are sold each year to ease pain, that is  there to tell us we are doing something wrong. Hundreds of millions of dollars are spent each year on treating candida, a disease which cannot be cured by treatment, but only by living correctly. Health is a state of being free from disease. The appropriate way of overcoming  it is not seeking a treatment for candida, but seeking a way of life that is  healthful. We can come  from the dark into the light. You have the chance on seeing the way to be much more than well from a malady. You have the opportunity to be well.

    Candida causes discomfort, not death like cardiovascular disease and cancer, but discomfort. Medicine can give you a pill to relieve the itching, or a drug to suppress the pain. Yeast infections, are a common disorders. It is a disorder of a normal colonic flora constituent growing outside the colon, and can be related to any disorder in any system or organ in which candida albicans is growing, and should not be growing.  At the turn of the century it was  a  rare disease. It was reported a few times in terminal patients in hospitals and in other patients with obviously failing immune systems, but otherwise was unknown prior to World War II. The rates of candidiasis and  other diseases like cancer, diabetes, heart disease and others have grown explosively during this century while deaths from infectious diseases have dropped off the scale.

     Most commonly candida is  thought of as relating to vaginal yeast infections, it can be much more. Acne, sinusitis, bronchitis, urinary tract infections, ear infections, sensitivity to smoke and fumes, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, various mental problems and dysfunctions, athletes foot, constipation, diarrhea, coughs and various other problems have been related to candidiasis.  Yeast infections  are now so common that almost everyone is aware of this problem.  They are very routine, troublesome and difficult to treat.

     Modern medicine has had almost no success treating this disorder.   A big part of the difficulty is that this disease, along with most chronic disorders associated with aging, viral diseases, cancer and autoimmune disorders,  does not fit or respond well to the modern medical paradigm. It is a disorder caused by allopathic treatment of disease and  cured by right living.  Modern medical treatment is had its greatest successes from following the theory that disease can be cured by destroying a microbe that has invaded the body. Modern medicine born on the battlefields of Europe and America has a distinctly military view of life. It is a them versus us mentality. When the them is a specific microbe,  a specific treatment applied to  destroy the invading enemy. This is the basis of almost all modern pharmacology and modern allopathic medicine.   As long as this is the dominant model and all diseases must be treated within those confines of  allopathic theory, there is no real hope that orthodox medical physicians will cure candidiasis.  The first thing to do is to completely rethink our view  of the problem.

     Candida albicans is the organism blamed for the problem. It is a normal resident of the body. If you do a stool culture on a perfectly healthy person, you will find candida albicans.  If you do a culture on a person with a yeast infection, you will  find candida albicans. This has been part of the controversy about this disease. In the medical model, if the villainous microbe is present, there is disease.  Treating doctors say— see here it is, candida, that is the problem. Let's kill it and that will cure the disease! Other doctors say candida can't be the problem. It is always there! They claim since we all have candida in our systems that it can't be a problem, because in the allopathic view all diseases are caused by other  life forms are not meant to be in the body. The entire way of thinking of allopathic medicine is to find a guilty microbe and annihilate it.

     You can't do that with candida. It is always there. If you could get rid of it, it would come back.  So you run into two problems. One, many physicians won't admit that candidiasis exists because it does not fit their paradigms of thinking about disease. Second, other physicians admit that it exists, but try to treat it by eradicating the candida following allopathic theory, which cannot be done. They are right in recognizing the disease, but the standard medical way of thinking still dominates their approach in treatment. They fail in treating it because they still view the world by the medical model which fails to consider symbiosis and natural balance. If these factors are not foremost in the doctors thinking while treating candidiasis,  failure is virtually guaranteed.

     Other physicians using other paradigms of viewing and treating candidiasis have had total success in restoring their patients to health. It is a matter of proper perspective. As a measure of having this model of balance with nature built into thinking, what does your doctor do with antibiotics? When he or she gives you a prescription for antibiotics, do they also give you a prescription for normal intestinal flora to take when the course of antibiotics is finished to restore normal flora? If they don't, they are not considering the necessary balance of nature in your body.  Proper thinking regarding this balance of nature is not a common consideration in modern American medical practice.
 If we are to successfully treat candida, it is imperative that we look at our model of how life and diseases work. We must look objectively  at this disorder and its causes. If this model fits then we develop the treatment based on the model. No universal model exists in health! Life works on many planes and uses many mechanisms. We must change models for different types of problems.  There is no unified field theory that covers all the possibilities, as exists for physics. Albert Einstein finished the details of this uniting electro-magnetic, nuclear and gravity forces into one model at the beginning of this century. Albert was noted to have been a fairly bright physicist, and even his theory has some difficulties in application. The science of physics has not legislated one school of thinking into dominance by law.  We have been able to make changes in Einstein's theories as needed to make physical models fit with reality.  We have not been so fortunate in health care.

     In health there are fundamental differences in the models of disease and health held by various schools of healing. There has never been a movement in Western medicine that has made any significant inroads into the dominant theories of the different branches of physicians. Allopaths, Medical Doctors, have continued to maintain political dominance and rely on prescriptions to kill disease organisms. Chiropractors have continued to rely on balancing the nervous system to restore normal function. Homeopaths have continued to stimulate the body to respond to  conditions by providing very small doses of toxins which stimulate the body to react to the disease state.

      The allopathic system has been great at curing infectious disease. It does not work at all on other illnesses like candidiasis. The system that works for treating candidiasis works great for dealing with organisms that work in symbiosis with the body. It may not work as well with pathogens that are not in symbiosis with the body.  First, candida is always present in the body, particularly the colon. A healthy colony of candida can always be found there.   Diphtheria and other fatal disease organisms that allopathic treatments work so well to correct are not normal in the body. They are not meant to be there. Candida is. Having a massive colony of the fungus growing in profusion there is not normal, nor is it in other locations. It is meant to be in balance with the body's other flora.

     Why does this overgrowth of candida albicans  happen? In understanding why it happens, we can see how to approach curing it. Until we gain this understanding, all the treatments are no more than wild guesses. Where the underlying premise is wrong, these guesses are doomed to the total failure we have seen in modern medicines handling of this disease! The surest way to check a physician's understanding of this disorder is to ask how they are going to treat it. If they drag out their prescription pad to give you a potion to kill all  the yeast, you know that they do not understand the disease. When this happens you know you may have met the type of physician, defined by Descartes over two hundred years ago. "A physician is a person that treats a patient until they die, their money is all gone, or they are cured by nature." A doctor that does not understand the physiology of candidiasis is likely to be of very little use to you, and may do more harm than good.

     The normal anatomy, physiology and balance of life are where this disease has its origin.  Balance is the key word. In our bodies we have billions of our own cells. We also have billions of rambling microbes and other fellow travelers. Some  of these are not harmful or helpful. Some are crucial to life. Others, if given the chance, can kill or make us sick. Streptococci can damage us. Millions of types of "bugs" can make us sick, from colds to most infectious types of disease. Medicine has shined in eradicating or controlling those diseases that specific pathogenic microbes cause. This is particularly true where these organisms are not normal residents of the body. If it is a specific  microbe or a bacterium that causes the disease, then we develop antibiotics to single out and attack that life form. It dies, and the body recovers very rapidly. This is great.

     I am alive because of antibiotics. I would have died as a little kid from pneumonia, had I not had antibiotics. So I think they are great--- when used appropriately!  I have referred hundreds of patients for such therapy, when it was appropriate. For pathogenic bacteria and other disease causing wee beasties antibiotics are THE cure. They don't work on viruses, most fungi and a host of other disease causing life forms. Yet billions of prescriptions are written each year to give antibiotics to patients suffering from viral infections. This is a useless treatment! It has contributed to the increase in antibiotic resistant microbes making this terrific form of cure less and less effective in even curing infectious disease!

     Some other life forms are just sort of neutral. They cause no harm, they are just there doing their thing within our bodies. Candida is one of those. It is not a microbe. It is a fungus. It is interesting that they are one of a very large kingdom. We think of things being animal or plant. There are other kingdoms as well. Funguses are a separate kingdom. There are more types of fungus than there are mammals. They are more different than mammals as well.  There are more differences between types of fungus than there are between elephants and mice for example. Fungi include all the mushrooms, lichen on rocks, mildew and athletes foot fungi, etc. One is candida albicans. All of this life form are not animal, they are more like plants, except they do not have chlorophyl. They like animals live off other living or dead  things. They get their energy from metabolizing foods created by other living things. We all are indirectly or directly dependant on plants and chlorophyll containing life forms to live. Only chlorophyll containing organisms can take energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy. All other forms of  life on the surface of the earth depend on chlorophyll containing life forms for  fuel for their lives. Both the animal kingdom and the fungus kingdom live off these chlorophyl containing energy sources. Most funguses live off dead things or plants.  Others live off and in living animals and plants. Every animal species developed in close proximity to these fungi. As we became who we are, they changed and adapted as well.  Candida Albicans is a specific fungus that lives on a human host.  Many other living things like Candida, living within each of us  are specifically developed for us.

     Within our bodies, within each cell in our bodies, is a specific type of bacterium. Mitochondria are bacteria that long ago developed to live within our cells. These bacteria, which are not really considered bacterium, but organelles and a vital part of each cell, are essential to life. They create and make all the energy of life for us, and pass  from parent to child. We think that since babies grow within the body of the mother, that the inoculation of this form of bacteria is more from the mother rather than being an equal mix of inheritance from the mother or father as are most characteristics. The type and genetics of the mitochondria affect the energy use of the offspring. Obesity is partially from the type and amount of mitochondria that you may have. If they are active and in large quantities, and you have "brown" fat you will be thin. Brown fat is a special type of fat that is brown, and burns energy rather than storing it. When you over eat,  then your body automatically burns excess fat taken into the body. If you have this type of fat cells in abundance,  gaining weight is difficult. We all have known people like this. They are thin, no matter what, or how much they eat. Most of us are like this when we are young. As we age, if we abuse them by binging on food constantly, these cells may die off with time. This is one reason why many people have difficulty gaining weight when they are young, and difficulty not gaining it by middle age. Others look at food and seem to gain weight from infancy on. This is one factor in weight control.

    Those people do not have good levels of brown fat or more sluggish mitochondria tend to be overweight. When they consume excess calories, they do not have billions of these little bacteria in their fat cells that are actively burning off the excess. They store it and gain weight. The only way they can maintain a lean figure is to carefully balance their intake and use of energy.

     Many other examples of specific synergistic life forms are incorporated into our being. Every cell of our bodies contains a number of mitochondria. Other organisms have maintained an independent state and live within us in a symbiotic relationship.  In the colon we all start our lives with the implantation of L bifidus acidophilic bacteria. We get this from our mother's breast when we begin nursing. It is the type of bacteria present on her breast in good health. These bacteria are vital for good health, and are the first colony of bacteria that sets up in our colons. It is present on our mother's breast because it is a bacterium specifically developed to help digest her milk.  We do not get this essential to life bacteria from pasturized of other sterilized foods.   As we eat other raw foods in a natural state,  we get the bacteria and other living things that are meant to be consumed with our food.  As babies grow they ad bacteria that are specific to beans, broccoli, squash etc.  This happens  if they eat some of these foods in a living state. If we cook everything, establishing good digestion may be difficult. It may be impossible. To completely digest  food it is necessary to have healthful, friendly flora to complete the last phase of assimilation. The presence of synergistic bacteria, yeast and other life forms within and on the foods themselves as they grow and develop in nature are important to duplicate within our digestive tracts for complete digestion. Nature never designed us to eat cooked or sterile foods. These may be safer in the short run. No harmful microbes are consumed.  Still, in the end it causes chronic disease by causing a deficiency of essential friendly flora in the digestive tract.

     It is a modern adaptation of man to eat cooked foods. This was made necessary when man began to consume animal-based foods. We  have trouble with animal products, our digestive tracts are not designed to consume animal proteins other than mother's milk as babies. Our teeth are not fangs as are carnivores. Our colons are much larger and longer than carnivores just as are other herbivores. We do not have the necessary acid in our stomachs to digest meat.  To live on these foods we  must alter them to make them digestible.   Meat and other animal products are unhealthful to eat raw. When we eat the flesh of an animal, we must usually cook it well done. Our stomach acid will not break it down or destroy the harmful bacteria as a carnivore's stomachs would do.  Cooking it well done is better, if you are going to consume meat products. The cooking denatures the proteins making them easier to absorb and causes the bacteria and most other life forms  to die helping to prevent disease.

     Cooking of vegetable source foods in not usually necessary or good. We conceived the idea of disease being spread by raw foods over thousands of years. The notion is based on consumption of animal-based foods. Animal foods do carry disease.  I bought a large set of 1913 internal medicine practice texts. In those texts they described various types of food poisoning. Food poisoning and how to treat it from fish, pork, meat, poultry, milk products etc. is described. No forms of food poisoning listed from plant sources. Those of us who become living foods vegetarians quickly learn that we just don't get food poisoning, unless we are unfortunate enough to eat in a location in which the restaurant or host prepares salads or raw veggies  following the preparation of animal source foods on the same preparation area contaminating the vegetables.

     This is not to say that a vegetable can't be rancid, poisonous or unhealthful to eat. It is just that with adequate use of the nose and a little common sense the risk was considered not worth mentioning in older medical texts before modern food processing could hide toxic food odors, tastes and appearances. In living using a diet that is closer to nature as is a raw, living vegan diet our natural instincts honed over billions of years of development come fully into play. We select wholesome, ripe, non diseased fruits and vegetables. We reject things that are rotting or look, smell or feel bad.  Our eyes, noses and senses of touch guide us to healthful appearing food sources. It is not as easy to do this when we cook these foods and change their nature by cooking or using flavor covering spices. It is almost impossible to be guided by our instincts if we use animal products in our diet.

     It is not a good idea to take into our bodies the organisms that are trying to digest the meats of other animals. Those bacteria with a little encouragement will also consume us. Clearly cancer viruses are such organisms. As all vegetables contain on and in them the necessary organisms designed by nature to return them to the soil on their deaths, so do animals. We are by design meant to consume vegetables and those organisms that come with them. In our digestive tract we, in the colon, have a large region designed for these organisms to live and help us with the digestion of the foods we eat. The forms of disease that kill plants are not often the same forms of diseases that kill animals. Plants have cancer viruses.   Animals have cancer viruses. These viruses are generally very kingdom  specific.  It is very rare for a plant virus to attack an animal. We are specifically designed to live in harmony with them.    It is much less likely that a plant virus will be designed to attack us. It is well accepted that viruses that are usually fairly species specific can make the jump between animal species. This is  particularly true  if the species are close relatives. AIDS is an example of this. It is a common virus of chimpanzees, and seems to cause them no harm. It made the jump to man, and is fatal to us.

     Others that may be more closely related carry even more dangerous diseases. The Europeans were very successful in colonizing the Americas and not at all successful at colonizing most of Africa and Asia. All sorts of reasons have been given for this. Only in the Americas and isolated island cultures did white man virtually drive the indigenous peoples into extinction. This is constantly presented in a military sense. However, our military conquest had little to do with it. American Indians tend to have very little resistance to white man's diseases. More Indians died from swine flu than all other causes. Others died from pneumonia, diphtheria and other diseases. The contagious diseases carried by Europeans inoculated into what had been an isolated human culture within a few decades erased whole cultures from the earth. So that white men came to dominate North America and most of South America both in numbers as well as by conquest. We fared much more poorly in Asia and Africa. The diseases of those areas were more lethal to us than they were to indigenous populations. In whole regions of Africa, populations were cleared off. Settlers were sent to colonize. Within a few generations the white settlers were extinct and the local populations had regrown due to the inability of Caucasians to survive in those climates with the local diseases.

     We all carry life forms within us. We spread them in our waste, breath and just by our very presence. We also carry them  in our flesh.   Long ago all successful cultures gave up eating human flesh, as a bad thing to do. There was far more than just moral reasons for this.   The diseases of other humans, their cancers, etc., are very likely to be transmissible through consuming their flesh. I can think of no cannibalistic culture which we note for good health or long life spans. It would be a natural selection that cannibalistic tribes would be displaced by more healthful tribes not practicing this diet. Serious diseases specific to cannibals  are found no place else.   Kuru Kuru is such a disease in New Guinea, where people die of this serious brain disorder, passed from generation to generation by consuming virally infected human brains. Similar neurological  diseases are found among meat eaters. There is a brain disease among sheep that has been found to transmit to some  mutton eaters. Mad cow disease is another one of these brain diseases that is transmissible to man via consuming infected meat products.

     Cancer viruses are not the only things that can come to us through the animal products we consume. Parasites come from other animals. As similar creatures these disease causing life forms may make the jump to us when we eat their original host.  Each animal has their own fellow travelers. When we die, we are returned to the soil by life forms we have within us for designed for just that purpose. We also tend to carry those chronic  disease causing life forms, that when our useful purpose here on earth is done, are intended to remove us from the living.  Cancer is a universal plant,  human and animal disease. All animals, and  all living things for that matter, have a designed maximum life span. If war, famine, accidents or other cause of death beyond the control of the immune system fail to take us with them within an appropriate amount of time, the immune system turns off allowing cancer or some other disease we carry within us to develop and remove us from life at the appropriate time.

     No reliable records of anyone living much beyond 120 years have been found. On examination most patients of great age do suffer from some form of cancer as they approach this natural limit. One theory is that we carry with us the cancer viruses that are meant to take us away when we have reached beyond our useful life span. Another theory is that we catch cancers in some way from the environment.  We have shown cancer to be a virus in all animal studies. For each cell in the body there are on average at least two viruses. The introduction into the body of viruses and life forms not native to our species  may alter the natural design of things, creating chronic or fatal diseases long before the normal design of nature. The Bittner virus associated with breast cancer may be such a virus.  It is often present in the milk of mammals..

     Eating the virus containing bodies or body products of other animals if one way to very effectively introduce them to our bodies. In consuming  animals we consume viruses and those can enter our bodies.  If they are harmful, then there is a chance of developing that viral disease. It is no surprise that the rate of cancer is much higher among meat eaters and milk drinkers than it is among vegetarians.  Some of it has to do with the general higher level of health of vegetarians due to higher consumption of fiber, no cholesterol in the diet etc. Another part of this is that vegetarians do not have the exposure to cancer viruses that meat eaters have.

     The risk of consuming an animal is greater if that animal is a closer species since all the life forms in and on that animal are by nature closer to those that effect us. In this system disease can be passed via milk and milk products rather easily. The rate of breast cancer for example is very low in non milk consuming cultures, and high in societies that drink milk. To eat another mammal or their body products exposes  you to potentially carcinogenic viruses.  This applies most specifically to tissues, such as milk from infected breast tissue causing breast disease via viral infection in susceptible hosts who consume milk.   To eat a bird is of less risk to breast tissue.  They do not have breast tissue. Fish are even  less of a risk generally. Fish are even  less similar to man with greater variation in tissue types. Their viruses are less likely to be viable in the human body. Never, however, is the consumption of animal flesh or products as safe as getting nutrients from vegetarian sources.

     Understanding this model helps to understand many diseases. However,  candidiasis was not common in vegetarians nor meat eaters a few decades ago. Now it is more common in meat eaters and milk drinkers and less so in vegetarians. It is just important that we begin to think in terms of other organisms living in harmony or non harmony within our bodies based on a natural order of things.  In all the eons that man has been consuming meat, candidiasis was a very rare disorder until after the 1940s. Something changed during that decade that caused this disease to become common.  If we keep looking at normal function, we will begin to see why. With each raw food eaten we inoculate the colon with bacteria and other life forms which work in symbiosis with using this food source. When we kill it by chewing and destroying the life force within the food, we open the door to those symbiotic life forms designed to digest this food and return it to the soil. We have a system in which we break down sugars in the mouth. Acid in our stomachs breaks down proteins. In the small intestine various solutions and enzymes are added to break down  and absorb most of the rest of the nutrients. This is not complete without the final stage of digestion in the colon! We can survive without a perfect synergetic colony of life forms in our colons. We will not feel as good. We will not be as healthful. Nevertheless, we can live a shorter, more pain filled existence.

     Other organisms cannot do this. Termites cannot digest wood. They live by eating wood. Within their digestive tracts are wood digesting bacteria. Without these bacteria they cannot live at all.  One of the sure fire ways to kill  termites is to give them an antibiotic that kills these bacteria. They then die of starvation surrounded by and filled with their natural food.  We on the other hand can digest most of the  things we eat tolerably well with our own digestive juices. We do not die if our colonic flora is off balance. We just do not live as long or as well.  Every vegetable or other food you put in your mouth will have residues reaching the colon. Nature intends us to greet these residues with a healthful colony of bacteria designed to complete the digestion process.  There will always be residues however that will not digest without this helpful flora, and I have no idea how many of mankind's serious illnesses are directly related to imbalances in this flora.  I am sure there are many. Candida is one.
 No herbivore or omnivore digestive system is designed to break down all the nutrients in the food. The consumption of raw not sterilized foods is important to create and maintain this second line of digestion in the colon. In the colon these residues of our foods go through a final sweep to remove nutrients and manufacture others for our use. How we do this is that there is supposed to be a healthful colony of bacteria in the cecum which breaks down the food still further and makes products useful to the body from these residues.

     The effect on health is shown by explaining a common misconception about vegetarians. It was taught earlier in this century,  that vegetarians could not be healthful because they needed meat to get all the necessary nutrients to survive. This has not proven true at all. However partial vegetarians or those who do not have healthful flora in their colons do need supplementation. Vegans, who consume no animal products, do not. The use of products containing antibiotics kills some essential flora in the colon. Without that flora surviving as a vegan is impossible. One essential nutrient is vitamin B-12. This is not a vegan vitamin, and our own bodies do not make it any more than termites make the enzymes necessary to digest cellulose. It was taught in our health universities and colleges that unless vegans took B-12, they would develop pernicious anemia and die. Then along came the 60s and 70s. Thousands became vegan, eating no animal products. I myself have not had any animal source foods for more than six years nor have I taken any B-12 supplements. If we did not have, nor could not make B-12, all of us should have developed deficiency symptoms. In fact the exact opposite happens. Those of us who are  living foods  vegans rarely have any nutritional deficiency symptoms. The key to this is that friendly bacteria in the colon make vitamin B-12. We absorb this B-12  into the body. We develop no deficiencies of this vitamin due to a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria in our colons. Perhaps we have more in common with termites in our digestive needs than we realize.  We also almost never have candida infections, unless our doctors give us antibiotics and we fail to restore normal balance following this therapy.

     This was one of the first great clues as to the cause of candidiasis. Living foods vegans can get it— but only if exposed to exogenous antibiotics. It just doesn't happen with us unless there is a cause in our environment that is not usually there.  Another clue was the timing of the introduction of antibiotics to allopathic medical care. Antibiotics were developed and began to be commonly used in medicine in the 1940s. This was just when candidiasis first became more than a very rare medical occurrence. Then in the 50s and beyond, a tidal wave of women's yeast infections began. That epidemic continues today with even more symptoms attributed to candidiasis. What changed?

     Well, first, obviously, the introduction of antibiotics paralleled the rise in yeast infections. In fact initially a prescription for antibiotics directly preceded almost all yeast infections.  Yeast infections  followed a course of antibiotics by a few weeks. It was not until much later that women and others began to have yeast infections when their physicians did not give them a course of antibiotics. If we look first at the first cases, we will understand the main mechanism.

     What do antibiotics do? They kill bad microbes. Well, they kill microbes, good and bad. When as a child, I was dying of pneumonia, my doctor gave me penicillin shots, I was well and back at school playing with my friends in a few days. Those shots killed the pneumonia bacteria in my lungs. I lived. Viva antibiotics! I like it here, and in no way oppose proper antibiotic therapy. What else happened when I had these antibiotics? One thing was that I had an increase in abdominal discomfort. My allergies got worse, etc.

     Antibiotics have ranges. Most antibiotics don't just kill pneumonia causing bacteria, they kill all sorts of related bacteria. Penicillin was a very broad scope killer of bacteria. It kills them everywhere. Where would these bacteria be? Many live in the colon. Normally  several pounds of healthful bacteria live there waiting for food to be broken down. When you take antibiotics many of these are killed. All antibiotics, to the best of my knowledge, do kill some colonic flora. They always cause an imbalancing of the natural process in this area. Following a course of antibiotics you should always take acidophilous and eat a lot of raw veggies to restore this lost bacteria. Antibiotics imbalance the flora in the colon. Candidiasis is a disease caused by this imbalance. What they do not kill is yeast. Most fungi are very resistant to antibiotic therapy. So that when you take antibiotics the other bacteria are killed. The candida albicans, which is normally present in a  small quantity, survives antibiotic therapies. Nature abhors a vacuum. If you destroy all the other bacteria, then what is left multiplies and grows to fill the void. This is why candida infections follow antibiotic therapy.

     It is only slightly more complicated than this. The candida in the colon multiplies because we need it to digest foods present in the colon. The ratio of candida to other bacteria becomes very skewed. This is in the colon. If it remained there digestion and colonic function would be altered, but the vaginal infections would not be such a big deal. However, the immune system and the candida also have a relationship. When they exist in a small quantity in the colon, the immune system sort of tolerates them there, but does not allow them to grow well in other locations. However when they profusely take over the colon, this  alters the  response from the immune system.

     The immune system is sort of like an analogy of the calvary and the red men. Out rides the calvary looking for Indians to round up. They can't find any on the US side of the border, so they slip across into Canada. An Indian pops up on the top of a hill wearing a red coat and yelling disrespectful remarks about the soldiers. The commander sends two men to get him. He disappears over the hill, followed by the troupers. A few minutes later he is back, yelling again. The commander dispatches ten troupers to get him. The same thing happens. Then over the side of the hill crawls back one of the troupers shouting---- "Go back, there's a bunch of Canadian Mounties over here, and the Indian is one of them!!!!" This is followed by a quick retreat back to the US side of the border and a general order to stay on US soil and leave that Indian and anyone else in a red coat  alone.

     The immune system puts up a huge fight against foreign invaders of the body. It tends to make a general respond, like sending in a few troupers,  to small invasions unless a mug shot of the invader has been filed from a previous engagement. If such mug shots exists, then the immune systems command centers make decisions. If the mug shot is of a known bad guy, it starts an all out attack. If it is of someone to leave alone, like the Indian in a red coat,  it stops all the responses.  It also tends to give up if there is a message from some monitoring station that there are too many invaders within the body too fight off. This happens if there is just too much infection or a growth is too large to handle. Another situation is that the body sets levels of tolerance.

     The example of the Indian in a red coat is appropriate.  We as a nation do not round up Canadian nationals in Canada. Treaties are involved.  We get in all sorts of trouble if we ignore their laws in their country. The immune system may mount a huge response no matter what the local situation, if it is within the jurisdiction of the body. However if the body views the situation as being on foreign soil the situation is different. The immune system is no different.
 We have to set different levels of response depending on the situation and the situation both within and without the body. We also have an area of foreign territory deep with our bodies. The body has set up a system in which the immune system controls its responses based on the activities within and without the body. The skin and external organs are loaded with immune tissue and maintain an active and hostile response to all invaders that enter the body through these unauthorized channels. Then there are internal immune stations that respond to internal situations.   The colon is major among those monitoring stations. It is very rich with sensing membranes that check all the proteins in the colon and report these back to the immune system command centers. This is a very special point of interpretation. The colon is the end of the production line for general discharge of the bodies by products and indigestible waste.

     The anatomy of this area is very clear, as is the design of the immune tissue. The relationship of this to immune response has been observed by many colon therapists and alternative doctors, but has not been the subject of that much paid scientific investigation in recent history. Dr Otto Shellburg MD, past president of the New York Medical Association's book on colonic irrigation written in 1923 has not been improved on that much in the intervening years. His description of colonic flora is as complete as any modern texts I have read.  Most of us in clinical practice having practiced colon therapy have clinically observed activation or deactivation of  immune responses following colonic irrigations. It is why many of us believe the colon is an important key to health. It is why its function has such an important effect on the treating of  infectious, allergic, abnormal tissue growth and other disorders related to immune system dysfunction.

     The colon immune system is  sequestered. It generally has no incoming contact with the outside world. The colon is on the end of the digestive tract. It is not naturally in contact with the environment. The body has processed the contents of the colon and these are ready for release. Checking its contents is a good diagnostic indicator of the function of the body, just as checking the exhaust in an automobile tells  how the car is running. The contents of the colon are very much an indicator of how efficiently the body is working and whether it needs a tune-up. Setting the response of the immune system from this rear echelon position makes this a logical place for setting the  response levels  of the immune system. It is also an area that is within the body, but is also excluded from the body. Any thing that has made it thorough the GI tract to this point is not very susceptible to attack by the digestive system. So it is a good monitoring system for the body to judge what level of response is appropriate to proteins found in the colon.

      The walls of the colon are lined with an extensive system of immune system monitoring cells. These cells report back to the control systems of the immune system all the bioactivities in the colon, but do not try to police them as they would if they were within the tissue of the body.  Candida being there does not mean it will be tolerated in other locations. The problem is that when  an overgrowth of candida in the colon   reaches a certain, reporting cells send the message that they are being overwhelmed. At that point rather than fighting back the immune system tends to say— hey, there are too many of them.  It turns off its response to that particular bio entity. When the body does this it also does it in other areas, including the tissues of the body the immune system stops destroying candida.  Our Indian friend in a red coat can then safely move about and set up colonies in Canada or the United States.  At that point      the body develops the disease of candidiasis. It is not the result of candida albicans being present in the colon. It is the result of TOO MUCH candida albicans being present in the colon. So that our physician friends that said here it is, it is the cause of the disease, were partially right. The physicians that say the presence of candida albicans cannot be blamed for the disease were right as well. It is the quantity that makes the difference, not the presence. Frankly other than doing a colonoscopy with scrapings of the colon, I can't think of a way to do a good analysis of just how much and where this overgrowth of candida in the colon must exist in order to trip the switch and turn off the immune systems response to this life form.

     What is much easier, and less costly, is just to treat it. It is one of those diseases in which the cure is both less harmful, and cheaper than spending the money to diagnose it. If in fact you have candida, or a yeast infection based on this fungus, treating it is easy. You should get better in a few weeks. If the diagnosis is wrong, you will just be healthier for having undergone the treatment.  It is one of those wonderful treatments that just generally makes you healthier, and is a good idea to do even if you have no symptoms. It takes us back to the first law of good heath care. "Physician do no harm." The treatments I use and recommend for candidiasis have no negative effects.  I have never seen a patient have any negative reactions to our treatment of this disorder. Every patient has had an increase in vitality and good health as a result of the treatments!

     A large part of why we have been involved in this treatment is that the colon is the key to treating this disorder. The immune system centers a large part of its tuning or response setting mechanism here because it is at the end of the line of the bodies assimilation and elimination system. It is not supposed to be exposed to the outside world. Normally everything flows down and out through the colon. However, there is an opening. It can be quite open to invasion from below. Reflex, and conscious thought protect it. We all resist the invasion of our hinder most parts unless we make a conscious decision to allow this. It is very possible to choose to alter the contents and function of the colon by rectal infusions. The colon is designed to be easily filled and washed by artificial means. In doing this we can consciously change the levels of bacteria and the ratios of these bacteria. We can remove, most, but not all, of the flora and encourage a new beginning.  Those who use enemas or colonics to treat disorders like candida, colds or allergies notice an almost instant alteration of symptoms on clearing the colon.

     This is how we treat candida! I, when I owned a colonic irrigation clinic, accepted referrals from several medical doctors for treating this disorder.  In every case we treated we had good results. However, the treatment is only part of the cure. We had a simple routine of diet and colon cleansing. Every patient so treated was better within two weeks if they followed instructions.  If you had candida and came to my office, we could help you get over the symptoms and get rid of your current episode of candidiasis. Those symptoms could return at any time if you did not change the causes in your own life that were the cause of the problem. So that the treatment part of this is of much more minor importance once the system has been restored to optimal than is the correction of lifestyle.

     How did I, a  chiropractor, with a colonic machine, have a total change in symptoms for my patients when the great halls of medicine consistently fail with treating this disorder? It has to do with the paradigm of healing we spoke of earlier, and a more comprehensive understanding of the physiology of the GI tract and immune system. It was never my purpose to prescribe a pill which was intended to kill all the candida. I never intended too, nor ever did sterilize all the evil fungus from any person. My paradigm of healing is to help the patient live in balance with nature.  Restoring balance and balance function is a common goal of most chiropractors. It underlies the philosophy of chiropractic adjusting. We adjust the spine to allow better communication with the peripheral and central nervous system. The body then has better communication with the body. It responds more correctly to the environment.

     All  chiropractors who have mastered the art of adjusting have seen this happen many many times. We adjust the spine and arteries that were causing migraine headaches by being over dilated, and not performing as designed, contract, and the headache goes away. We adjust the spine and feeling returns to limbs that were numb because of nerve impingement, or pain goes away, or the bronchi of the lungs open. We know what to expect from a specific adjustment but there is a ripple effect. We  never know exactly what will happen over the next few days following an adjustment, except that those changes will be positive. We do know that whatever we do in freeing nerve pressure on the intervertebral foramen.  We know  that the body will take that improved function and do what it wants to  bringing itself into better alignment with nature.

     This same paradigm of healing applies to treating candidiasis. The goal is not to destroy bad guys. It is not to eradicate candida. It is to restore balance and function, so that the body can take that new balance and heal itself. In fact the most common reason patients came for treatment of candidiasis was persistent vaginal yeast problems. I never did any treatment of the vagina, which was the source of their complaint. I only sought to balance the flora within the body. The patients own body corrected the vaginal problems once the balance of nature was restored in the colon. We never examined or directly treated any vaginal yeast infections, but they all subsided following treatment because the body returned to its normal state.

     Our treatments consisted of diet and colon cleansing. The diet of sixty years ago did not cause any significant incidence of candidiasis, whether the patients were meat eaters or not. This is no longer true. We know that antibiotics cause yeast infections by destroying normal flora and allowing the overgrowth of candida albicans. It is that simple. However, the boys down at the chicken farm did not get the message.

     From the 1950s on yeast infections began to occur in people who were not taking antibiotics from their doctors. You don't have to take antibiotics in pill form any more! All you have to do is drink milk, use dairy products or eat domestic animals! After World War II, some enterprising veterinarian, thought to themselves, "If antibiotics kill and prevent bacterial disease in humans, what about animals?" They do work to prevent disease in animals. Chickens and other animals placed in coops or stock yards, packed in like sardines, are rather susceptible to disease. In fact, animal-based foods were too  expensive for massive consumption, in earlier generations because we could not raise them in such close proximity.  Chickens and poultry for one, required a lot of space because they tended to catch diseases and die if packed too tight. The use of antibiotics on whole chicken farms and other locations, in which animals were packed together, made it possible to raise large concentrations of animals on very little land. This is why we can eat more animal-based foods in our nation than any other people have done in the history of the world, outside the arctic regions.

     However, that meat is treated with antibiotics. Never has such a food been consumed by humankind before. Well, actually, it may be treated with antibiotics. Poultry is the most common source of antibiotics, but it is very erratic. The FDA says that farmers are allowed to introduce a specific amount of antibiotics to their flocks in their feed. They are supposed to add this each day and measure it carefully. If you ever find a farmer that does this, let me know. We could build some sort of monument to him or her. What farmers do in practice is watch their flocks. If they are healthful, they ad no antibiotics to the feed. If they start to get sick they ad buckets of antibiotics to the feed until they are infection free again. This is the most sensible way to do it. If you do it routinely then the tenancy to develop antibiotic resistance strains of disease organisms increases greatly. This is done with all domestic animals to some extent. The problem is that you may eat chicken for a year and have no problem. Then you eat one piece that contains enough antibiotics to kill all the bacteria in Los Angeles, and you get an out break of vaginitis or other candida problems. There is no way to know when that is going to happen, so I promise my patients that if they continue to eat domestic meat or milk products that candidiasis will return. Sometime it will just happen, when they buy that one piece of chicken or carton of milk loaded with antibiotics.

     Step one eliminate all milk and domestic animal products. I personally am a strict vegan and do not eat fish, sea food or wild meat. It is just too high a protein food to be healthful, and against my religion generally. Still, wild food does not have antibiotics in it. It is permissible when you are considering only candidiasis. The elimination of all this range of foods and being sure that the patient is not on a prescription for antibiotics at the moment, insures that they should not be killing off the flora as we try to rebalance it.

     This rebalancing requires the consumption of as much of our diet as possible in a living uncooked form. Vegetables and fruits consumed in their living state have all the friendly bacteria on them to establish colonies of good bacteria in the colon that will aid in their digestion when we eat them. If we must cook them, we should at least eat some raw, to help inoculate the colon with these bacteria. This is especially important with those foods commonly eaten, as the colon must constantly deal with these. Another way to be sure that the colon has healthful bacteria is to predigest some foods in their own juices, there by growing a larger colony of these bacteria before consuming them. This is kraut. Old German and Eastern European kraut is fixed just this way. Cabbage, etc., is digested in its own juice and eaten fermented. This food contains a great deal of healthful live bacteria and should be taken occasionally, especially if  still consuming cooked, dead food.

     I make my own, and will share my recipe: Please try this at your own risk. I use it for myself and my children. I guarantee that it contains bacteria! Bacteria can be harmful. If you do this and something goes wrong, it can. Don't eat it if is doesn't smell like kraut. I do not make any representation as to its safety as considered safe by the allopathic model of a safe food and most local and state regulations regarding safe foods!

     I take a starter. You always need a starter that is an old jar of kraut in which the bacteria are well developed. I save one from my last batch each time, and mix this in. Without a starter you may have some strange bacteria take over the kraut. Again use your nose. If it doesn't smell like kraut, assume  it is bad. What I do is to take a reasonable amount of fresh cabbage heads. I use both red and green cabbage. I shred these in a food processor, along with dill weed. I put in  cucumbers  sliced and quartered to make small identifiable pieces. The bacteria you are seeking to develop are acidophilic. They like acid. So if you do not acidify the mix it may go bad by developing another bacteria. To acidify it I use lemons. I use as many as a dozen or more lemons, depending on how much I am making. I juice these, peel them and throw in the white pulp, minus the seeds. Then we mix this throughly in a large container. I use a diaper pail, unused for its designed purpose of course. The top of this is about right for a large plate to fit in the top and go down into the diaper pail a few inches.

     After this is all mixed, you ad water to cover the mix. It is very important that you use no chlorinated or other water containing any chemicals. The purpose of this whole exercise is to grow healthful bacteria. If you kill the mix with chlorinated or purified water, just throw it out! A little too much cleanliness here, can ruin the whole thing. If you want to sterilize jars for holding that is fine, just be sure that all the chlorine, etc., is well removed before filling them. DO NOT STERILIZE THE KRAUT! This includes cleaning the containers etc. Do not use any antibiotic cleaners or chlorinated water to scrub the kraut containers or anything that is to be used to prepare the food.

     Ok now after adding spring or distilled water to the mix to cover the kraut. I put a plate on top and mash it down so that the water comes over the plate. Then I put a heavy jar or rock or anything to hold the plate down so that the water level stays above the plate. The bacteria that are healthful in the colon are anaerobic. That means existing in the absence of oxygen. By covering it with the plate and then weighting it down this forces all the air out of the mix, and the plate, which needs to be a close fit with just a little space around the edge so that carbon dioxide and other gases can escape, makes an air seal. I put a cloth over the top to keep out insects etc., being sure that it is not in the water, but covers the top of the diaper pail.  I usually add a little more water on top and sit this aside.

     It is a guess when this mix is ready. You want the kraut to "soften" but not rot before you bottle it.  It will develop a sweet krauty smell as it brews and the bacteria grow. It bubbles as anaerobic gasses are released. The first day or two, I tend to go push on the rock to ad pressure and watch the bubbles around the plate. Make sure that the water stays over the whole container. Sometimes it will swell the first day or two and rise out of the water, you want to prevent this by leaving enough room for expansion at the top of the pail. Ad more spring water if it tries to rise over the next few days. In cold weather in the kitchen it seems to take about a week to ripen. In warm weather it takes about three days. Again, it is not how much time it takes but when it ripens. I would begin to worry if it takes over a week.

     My key has always been when it seems right, or the rock sinks. When it gets really soft, I always use a gallon jar of something in water, when the kraut ripens and softens my jar sort of falls in. When this happens, bring it out, take off the top plate etc. Throw away the top layer and the water over the plate, and a little below it to be sure that any kraut that may have been exposed to air is discarded. Usually any area that is bad will discolor. Then take the healthful  bacteria rich kraut, put it in quart or whatever size jars you want and seal them, put them in the refrigerator, and they will last up to a year. When bottling be sure to mash the kraut down and put more spring water if needed to fill the jars and cover the kraut so there is no air visible in the kraut. Kraut it alive. It generates carbon dioxide, so it is naturally carbonated. If it gets warm it will expand and push out gas, and juices. If the tops of the containers cannot be pushed up it may break the bottles. Refrigeration prevents this. They must always be refrigerated once cured.

     This stuff tastes great with baked potatoes. It is a bit strong straight, but can be eaten that way. Consuming it occasionally is healthful for everyone. It is a raw, living food. Again I ad no salt to my kraut when preparing or storing, but I do salt it with sea salt before I eat it to taste. Salty kraut taste good, but if you ad it during preparation, this inhibits the growth of the bacteria. If you have candida this will give your intestines a good dose of healthful bacteria. If you have to take antibiotics, be sure to eat this in quantity when the course of pills is done, and throughout the course, so that the colon may function as normally as possible. This will load the colon with friendly bacteria when the antibiotic treatment is over, and is a great way of preventing candidiasis.

     I believe, most healthful cultures use some sort of fermented vegetable kraut as part of their diets. Again if you are a living foods person, you are probably doing fine without it, but it is good to have it when you are sick, or are using any sort of antibiotic medications. If you cook foods or especially if you eat any animal products consuming living kraut on a routine basis is very important. It cost about a dollar or two per quart to make this kraut. It you want to buy it there is a zing kraut from a manufacturer in Santa Cruz, California, that I think is great. I use this as my starter. You can buy it at some large health food stores.  In order to maintain a healthful colonic flora, it is necessary to keep restocking the pond. These living foods are a vital way to accomplish this.

     Next, before the jug is filled, it must be emptied. I never try to eliminate all the candida albicans. However, I do want to bring the quantities down, and replace them with healthful flora. The medical model is to do this with Nystatin, an anti yeast prescription medication. I don't personally favor this. Those patients I had referred to my office for colonics by their medical doctors were on nystatin. They got well. So did the ones that were not on nystatin. The single key that I found to be needed was not a bio-chemical killing of the candida, but a physiological removal of the bulk of it.

     The colon is the main site of candida albicans. It may be present in the rest of the body, but it is possible for pounds of it to be present in the colon. If this is removed and replaced with normal flora, the body's own immune system should turn on and remove the candida from other locations like the vagina. Colon cleansing is very important!  The colon is wonderfully designed to be at once sequestered from the environment, and capable of being painlessly washed out with injections of warm water.  If you just change your diet and eliminate the sources of the antibiotics you should get better. This can take years, as normal flora battles it out with the large colony of candida albicans in the colon trying to reestablish itself.  If you want to shorten this recovery time and go back to a normal life in a few days or weeks rather than years, it is necessary to remove the candida from the colon.

     The overgrowth is always in the cecum or the far end of the colon just where the small intestine empties into the colon. To remove the mass of this material, it is necessary to wash this area. To do this it is necessary to fill, dilate and gently stretch the cecum with a good fill of water. You can do this with a large warm enema, and repeat it taking at least three good enemas per session, or you can do colonic irrigations.

     I strongly recommend the colonic irrigations for this. Many things can be done by enema. Unfortunately most of us have difficulty taking a good cecum fill alone in our bedrooms or bathrooms. Long before we ever develop personal values of courage and valor, we all learned the importance of holding the contents of our bowels. Toilet training comes before almost everything else. A brave soldier that will hold his or her position when the onslaught of enemy soldiers threatens their very lives, will often turn and run for the safety of the toilet seat when their enemas are only half done. It is a natural response.

     Half-done enemas cannot treat Candida. It is very important that the colon be completely filled. If you have a spouse of friend to administer these enemas, their help may make a huge difference. Most people do not have the will power to take such an enema without the encouragement of a coach or nurse. It is important as well that that nurse understands the process and sees to it that it is carried to completion. It requires a pact between nurse and patient before the water begins to flow that the enema will continue until the colon is well filled.  Only then, when the cecum is well dilated and filled with water does the treatment via removing the candida overgrowth begin. An enema fills 4/5ths of the colon but does not stretch and dilate the colon in the lower right quadrant is not effective in treating this disorder. Alone this may be difficult to do, and for some patients it seems impossible with enemas.

      Colonic irrigations real shine in the treatment of candidiasis. The therapist works you, filling you gently and emptying you as they wash the entire colon many times during the forty-five minutes to an hour that you are on the table. I have read that a bad colonic is worth a dozen good enemas. In treating candida, I believe this is absolutely true. What you want to do in treating candida is throughly wash the cecum and colon. It is necessary to remove as much of the contents of the colon as possible. Nothing does this as efficiently as  colonic irrigations.

     In doing colonics for more than twenty years, I know colonics. In my clinic, we start with the patient on their side and give them about three good fills with much pumping to remove the feces from the lower bowel. Then they turn on their back. I fill them until they are absolutely full, then release this water into the drain. I should point out that the biggest physical difference between a colonic and an enema is that with a colonic, you don't have to rush to reach the commode after being filled. With colonics the hose  has an outflow and an inflow. You  fill. Then with a flip of a lever all the water is drained out. You have all the excitement of struggling to hold it as an enema. This is followed by the pressure being completely gone and your colon being empty!

     Following washing out the rectum, sigmoid and descending colon you are  on your back, we massage your colon while the water fills it. Most patients blow up like a water balloon, then empty profusely into the outflow. I  do this about four to six times with 103 degree Fahrenheit warm water, then switch to cool, 80 degrees. I do a single large fill with this water. This cool water causes the colon to contract and further cleans the walls more than you could ever hope to do with an enema. We bring the temperature rapidly back to 103 for about three more good fills, then it is over.

     A typical colonic involves a dozen or more full fills of the colon in one session as compared to one with a good enema in less than an hour. The effect of removing the bulk of the candida albicans is significantly better with this form of colonic than it is with enemas. This is the ideal way to remove the candida from the colon. It is, in my opinion,  more powerful than a good series of enemas.  All the cases of candida I treated had three colonic irrigations a week for two weeks. All of them got better.

      I had one patient that  had symptoms for two years with erratic results even though he was on a good diet. On barium enema examination we found that he had a pocket in his colon at the cecum. This pocket apparently held a colony of candida albicans that he developed following a course of antibiotics several years earlier. He had constant relapses. We did a barium enema which showed the pocket, then took care to fully fill his colon,  massaging and emptying the area of this pocket during his treatments. He completely recovered within two weeks.

     The cleaning of the colon through  use of enemas can be done, but again, it is requires reaching   the limit of the colon's capacity. It also requires  a series of enemas at least every other  day, having a series of three good full filling injections in a session,  for three days a week for the two weeks.  I do not guarantee as good a result as  would be had with the active care of a skilled colon therapist. As well you will need to schedule at least two to three hours for these sessions, rather than an hour if you must do the cleansing via enema.

    It takes about ten minutes do get your enema in. You will need to hold it for another ten. After that it can take up to half an hour to fully expel a good enema. It is common to let most of it out, then walk around a little and go back for more expelling. This leaves a few minutes to rest between enemas. You should have some juice to keep your mineral balance up. Enemas in series tend to be tiring. It seems they shouldn't be. All you have to do is lay quietly on your side while your nurse fills you, then continue to lie quietly for  another few minutes, then sit on the toilet letting it run out. It doesn't seem like much effort. It is. Finishing a series of enemas feeling absolutely wonderful, at peace and exhausted is typical. After the enemas it is common to lay down for a short rest, only to wake up hours later.  Colonics are just as exhilarating, but  not nearly so tiring.

     If you cannot use a colon therapist, read my chapter on how to give an enema. This is posted at my web site, http://www.healthandlifestyle.com/sample.html.  Better yet have your spouse, other family member or friend read it and give  your enemas.  I do not recommend the solo enemas in treating candida  unless this absolutely necessary. My  recommendation is to go to a skilled colon therapist. If you cannot do this find someone that is willing to give you good maximum capacity warm enemas. Before you start you can both agree that the treatments  will be a good full filling enemas, and will not end until your colon is comfortably and completely full.

     I think that these treatments have a bonding value with families.  Enemas are usually the terrain of the mother in the home. In a family the giving of a good enema is a very loving and motherly act. A child having taken and released a good enema should always feel mothered, cared for and loved. It can also be the act of a loving and caring husband,  other family member, or friend. The same is true with colon therapists. During their care of patients a trusting relationship develops with most patients. I don't know how many hundreds of times a nervous frightened patient entered the office unable to make eye contact. Then we chatted and they opened up during and after the procedure. They left smiling with that same soft look in their eyes that one has for an old friend known since childhood.  The clearing of the colon peals through all the layers of growing up to reach that early age of holding on to please mommy. It can reach memories of begging her to stop at the next filling station so you can go potty. These emotions can reach very deep.

      The effect on candida is very clinical and efficient. The effect on the home in which the wife's or husband's yeast infections are obliterated with the steady comforting hand of their mates encouraging the through filling of their colon takes them to a place of trusting them to care for their bodies as if they were a two-year-old attempting to earn their first training pants. It  can deepen trust   on many levels. Shared colon therapy  can help a family become closer on every level. As well the loss of the yeast infections these treatments and the changes in lifestyle that families must make to bring back health, often restore love.

     Candida is a personal disorder that can devastate marriages. It can leave gentle loving people wild and unbearably irritable with the itching of this disorder. It is a disorder created by one of our most effective medical treatments and its massive over use. It is also very treatable simply by returning to a healthful diet. Raw food vegans again don't seem to have the disease, or many other diseases common to modern man. Simple treatments known to man for thousands of years like colon cleansing are effective in the relief of many conditions. We live in a strange world. The more complicated things get, the simpler the solutions are sometimes. You just have to have the right paradigms. Sometimes in our modern world we educate ourselves so far from the truth that we cannot see simple facts. And the more educated the person is, the more often they seem to be unable to see these simple truths. We adopt paradigms, like modern allopathic medicine, in which pills or surgery replace food, simple therapies like enemas and colonics and right living. This is obviously wrong thinking. It is the reason that candida is so curable by simple natural measures, and a total enigma to so many highly educated physicians.

     In this article as well as my others, I have always been critical of the modern medical paradigm of allopathy. I should here make sort of an apology to those who hawk this system. I think it is wrong in many settings. I think it is useful in emergency room medicine and the treatment of defined infectious disease, etc. I do find the way of thinking useless in the treatment of most chronic disease, and those diseases that are now the great killers and disablers in the first world. Pills, drugs and dope are the expected thing to do. They are what sells. Those who sell the most pills drive the best cars and have the nicest homes.

     Teaching people how to care for their own bodies and those of their loved ones really doesn't pay very well. I believe it is partially a conspiracy with massive marketing and "educational" pressure to convince the people that pills are the answer, that pills, drugs and dope are the way to feel good and be healthful.  The buyer still has to beware, even in today's society. Our medical doctors in pushing prescriptions to kill the candida are in essence doing only what the market demands. The farmers pouring millions of gallons of antibiotics into the food sources of this nation are doing only what the market demands. If you line up with your children in front of the drug vendors buying them pills for every complaint as well as having a medicine cabinet full of pills and potions yourself, then you are contributing to the problem. It is because we as consumers buy these things that those that sell them have the power and the money to drown out the truth about every other form of therapy.

     If you have candida, get well. Go natural. Quit buying pills that won't work to correct the problem. Quit buying meat and dairy products that cause the problem and get well! When you go to the pharmacy for help, go right past the pills, vitamins and elixirs and go to the enema bags. They still have these in most American drug stores, hidden down on a bottom shelf. You will probably have to ask a sales clerk where they are. It may cost you as much as $16.00 to buy a good enema bag. Buy two— the good fills needed for treating candida rarely take less than two quarts so your nurse will have to switch bags mid fill.  So for $32 and a box of baking soda you have the cure for your candida in hand. As well for the next ten years you can treat the majority of the other ails that may hit your self or your family---- at no additional charge. This is pretty cheap when you realize that the last time you went to the doctor for an infection, you may have paid that much per pill for the privilege of developing the candidiasis in the first place!

     This works not only to help you get better.  It works to change the world. When the idea of doctors washing their hands between patients was discovered, there was resistance. During the last century women strongly resisted going to the hospital to have their babies. They had good reason for doing this. A very high percentage of maternity patients died of infections when they had hospital births. It was far safer to have babies at home, in the street, almost any location other than a hospital. A Hungarian doctor, Dr. Ignaz P.  Semmelweis MD, observed in 1847 that if he washed his hands between patients, that this infection rate dropped. The accepted medical practice at the time was to go from patient to patient with the surgeons hands dripping with blood and other body fluids. It is quite easy to see how this lack of cleanliness would spread pelvic infections in maternity wards now. In the 19th century the modern medical practitioners did not recognize it at that time.

     They were rather displeased with this hand washing idea and eventually had Dr Semmelweis put in a mental institution where he died of an infection from a cut. Fortunately the cat was out of the box. Patients had learned that if they made their doctors wash their hands it stopped infections. They forced medicine of that era to adopt sanitary techniques in treating patients by electing to go to doctors that would wash their hands.  If you vote with your dollars to buy treatments that work— the professionals will follow.  Enemas and colonics have been opposed by modern medicine just as they once opposed washing their hands between patients. Neither of these resistances to simple cleansing measures by contemporary physicians have had any scientific support. They opposed washing hands between patients because it was a new idea, not profitable and inconvenient.  They have opposed enemas and colonics because they are an old idea, not profitable and inconvenient.

     Public opinion forced a change in the thinking of physicians regarding cleaning their hands largely because scientific understanding of microbes and disease followed the clinical observations of Dr. Semmelweis and others. Enemas and colonics are very necessary treatments in relieving candida and many other conditions. Earlier physicians knew this from clinical observations. However, they did not have the knowledge of physiology, microbiology and the function of friendly bacteria to support their observations. Now we do.  We must continue to practice colon therapy. It corrects hundreds of conditions, as it does  candida. Eventually when enough people set up a howl demanding better quality colon  care from their doctors, there will be an interest in learning about colon therapy and colon care for better health by the medical profession. As new ideas which are not really profit motivated like cleaning of hands and equipment can come from new knowledge and force medical institutions to change, so can old treatments like enemas and colonics. Our understanding of diseases and health is expanding. As it does, the case grows ever stronger for the proper use of colon therapy in promotion of health and treating disease.

     Now is not the time for complacency in this, however. It has been more than sixty years since medical doctors have  been trained doctors in this area. In their lack of knowledge in claiming to be experts in this area, they have been responsible for some rather unscientific and illogical actions.  In California in the early 1990s the medical association thought the time was right to make it a felony to give an enema, or for a non medical physician to give a colonic irrigation.  Had they succeeded in this, the most effective way of treating candida would have been illegal.  The resulting political back lash ousted the state representative  who proposed the bill from office. This happened even though she had received a substantial donation from the medical association to her campaign fund. Some state legislators said this was the largest public outcry they had seen in many years. We have seen no more such foolish legislation proposed since then, because this one political test showed that the people use enemas. The people opposed making them illegal! The use of colon therapy can grow and become important again if its clinical uses are known, and we  reject ineffective treatments.

     If we as a people continue to reject antibiotic soaked meat products, or better yet just stop buying animal products  altogether, there will be an outcry. There will be increased subsidies to keep these farmers and their supply lines in business, but eventually, they will wash their hands and enter new industries. We will all be the better for it.

     No one needs to have candida. With changes in diet you can forget ever having had it. If we as a society reject the causes of the disease, your children and their children may not even recognize the word.
 

COLON THERAPY JOURNAL

http://www.healthandlifestyle.com/candida.html

 


Salt and Health

There is overwhelming evidence that links current high salt intakes to high blood pressure. High blood pressure is the main cause of stroke and a major cause of heart attacks. Many people have reduced or stopped adding salt at the table and in cooking, but are unaware of the very large amounts of salt in processed foods, many of which have a salt concentration approaching or equal to that of sea water.

An average reduction of salt intake of 3 grams a day over the next decade is likely to have an immense impact, with an estimated fall in the number of strokes by 22% and heart attacks by 16%, preventing at least 34,000 deaths a year, besides other health benefits for the UK population.

Cut Down on Salt

LOW SALT ALTERNATIVES

  • Do not add salt at the table
  • Use less salt in cooking
  • Use herbs and spices: garlic, onion, peppers, thyme, mixed herbs, chilli powder, ginger, curry powder, hot pepper, tomato, bay leaf, spring onion, dry mustard, paprika, vinegar, lemon juice
  • Fresh and frozen vegetables (do not add salt to cooking water)
  • Fresh fish, fish tinned in water, sunflower oil
  • Lean meats, egg, beans and peas (e.g. butter, kidney, haricot, and black eye beans)
  • Cottage cheese
  • Fruit, low salt crackers, unsalted nuts, dried fruit
  • Make soups and stocks from natural ingredients rather than using bought varieties
  • Include pasta, rice and potatoes in the diet on a daily basis
  • Choose low salt cereals

SALT RICH FOODS

  • Table salt, sea salt
  • Do not add ready made (shop-bought) seasoning, e.g. chicken, fish and meat stock cubes, garlic salt, gravy granules, marmite and soya sauce
  • Vegetables tinned in brine
  • Fish tinned in brine, or fish preserved in salt, e.g. salt fish, stock fish, smoked fish (unless naturally smoked from a reputable outlet) and shellfish
  • Canned meats, e.g. luncheon meat, corned beef. Sated meats: salt beef oxtail. Lower consumption of other salty meats bacon, sausages, beefburgers
  • Hard cheese, dips and cheese flavoured snacks x Salty snacks e.g. crisps, nuts (salted). Processed snacks
  • In general all processed (ready meals) unless the salt content is declared on the pack and is low
  • Bread, buy a low salt variety or make salt free bread at home
  • Cereals, many brands have huge amounts of salt. Check the label before you purchase.

If you would like more information,Contact

  • Sue Wilkinson,
  • Project Co-ordinator CASH (Consensus Action on Salt and Hypertension)
  • Telephone: 0181 7252409/5774
  • E-mail: s.wilkinson@sghms.ac.uk.


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http://www.differentstrokes.co.uk/salt.htm

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Diet

Gluten Free Diet

The Gluten-Free (GF) Diet: The GF diet is the prescribed medical treatment for celiac disease (CD)/dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). An immune system response to the consumption of gluten (the proteins gliadin and prolamine) results in damage to the small intestine of people with CD/DH. The GF diet is a life long commitment and should not be started before being properly diagnosed with CD/DH. Starting the diet without complete testing is not recommended and makes diagnosis difficult. Tests to confirm CD could be negative if a person were on the GF diet for very long. A valid test would require reintroducing gluten (a gluten challenge) before testing. Celiac disease is an inherited autoimmune disease and confirmation of CD will help future generations be aware of the risk of CD within the family.

Dietitians developed the following dietary guidelines, for the Gluten Intolerance Group and Celiac Disease Foundation. These are in agreement with the Gluten Free Diet guidelines published by the American Dietetic Association, October 2000. The American Dietetic Association Guidelines were written through a cooperative effort of dietitian experts in celiac disease in Canada and the United States.

The following grains & starches are allowed:

  • Rice
  • Corn
  • Potato
  • Tapioca
  • Bean
  • Sorghum
  • Soy
  • Arrowroot
  • Amaranth
  • Quinoa
  • Millet
  • Tef
  • Nut Flours

The following grains contain gluten and are not allowed:

  • Wheat (durum, semolina)
  • Rye
  • Barley
  • Spelt
  • Triticale
  • Kamut
  • Farina

The following ingredients are questionable and should not be consumed unless you can verify they do not contain or are derived from prohibited grains:

  • Brown rice syrup (frequently made with barley)
  • Caramel color
  • Dextrin (usually corn, but may be derived from wheat)
  • Flour or cereal products
  • Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP), vegetable protein, hydrolyzed plant protein (HPP), or textured vegetable protein (TVP)
  • Malt or malt flavoring (usually made from barley. Okay if made from corn)
  • Modified food starch or modified starch
  • Mono- & di-glycerides (in dry products only)
  • Natural and artificial flavors
  • Soy sauce or soy sauce solids (many soy sauces contain wheat)
  • Vegetable gum (may be made from oats)

Additional components frequently overlooked that often contain gluten:

  • Breading
  • Broth
  • Coating mixes
  • Communion Wafers
  • Croutons
  • Imitation bacon
  • Imitation seafood
  • Marinades
  • Pastas
  • Processed Meats
  • Roux
  • Sauces
  • Self-basting poultry
  • Soup base
  • Stuffing
  • Thickeners

To Learn More About the Diet - You may access the Quick Start Diet Guide for Celiac Disease from our downloadable files.

top of page

info@gluten.net

 

  http://www.gluten.net/diet.asp

 

 25: 

 

Sodium occurs naturally in many foods and is also added in the form of salt or other sodium-containing substances. Common salt or table salt is a chemical compound of sodium and chlorine and is called sodium chloride. The sodium content of food has important implications for health. Salt contains about 40 per cent sodium, and a teaspoon of salt, which weighs about 5 grams, contains about 2 grams of sodium.

Rock salt and sea salt are almost entirely sodium chloride, with only traces of other elements (minerals). In contrast to pepper, which loses flavour once ground, there is no advantage in freshly grinding salt prior to its use. Iodized salt contains about 0.03 milligram of iodine per gram of salt. It is intended as a supplement for people whose diet is deficient in iodine. Recent findings in the U.S.A. indicate that the level of iodine in the diet has increased and that the widespread use of this salt is unnecessary.

Varying amounts of sodium are added to food, but not always in the form of salt. Common food additives, such as baking soda, some preservatives, and monosodium glutamate (MSG), also contribute to the total amount of sodium we consume.

SALT AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

Probably one-fifth of the population, because of genetic predisposition, may be increasing their risk of high blood pressure (hypertension) by having a high intake of sodium. People who have a high intake of sodium have a high incidence of hypertension and stroke. High blood pressure is rarely seen in those who consume less than 1.2 grams (1200 milligrams) of sodium per day. In Australia, on the other hand, where the sodium intake can be in the region of 4 to 8 grams per day, about one in five adult Australians has high blood pressure. Salt is not necessarily the only important factor leading to high blood pressure, but in some cases it is. There are sound reasons why Australians should reduce their sodium intake. But sodium is an essential nutrient, and we need a certain amount for normal body function. A safe intake is considered to be between 0.9 and 2.3 grams of sodium per day, although in special circumstances, such as excessive sweating and diarrhoea, higher levels may be needed.

There is usually no need to increase salt intake in hot climates to avoid cramps, fainting and other symptoms because the body's hormones will adjust over a few days and conserve body sodium. Excessive heat presents other risks and should, in any case, be avoided.

HOW CAN WE CONTROL OUR SALT INTAKE?

Some people find it hard to reduce their intake of sodium. We all have the ability to taste salt, but the extent to which we like our food salted can be modified by experience. The amount of salt we consume cannot be wholly controlled by the moderate use of the salt shaker at the dinner table. This use only accounts for about one-third of our daily intake. Up to half of our salt intake is from processed food, with the balance occurring naturally in food and water. The amount consumed in processed food is difficult to control, although with highly salted foods, taste is a reliable guide. Some items that do not taste highly salted can contribute significant quantities of sodium to our diet because of the amounts we consume. Examples include bread, tomato sauce, and cakes and biscuits. Many 'take-away' foods, such as fish and chips, hamburgers and Chinese food, are highly salted. Bottled mineral waters can contribute a significant amount of sodium. An indication of sodium content is usually given on the label.

An increase in potassium intake seems to offset the adverse effect that sodium has on blood pressure. Foods that contain significant amounts of potassium and also low levels of sodium are fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables. But there is no justification for the unrestricted use of potassium salts as substitutes for sodium, as this would present new problems. Potassium supplements and salt substitutes can be potentially hazardous to health and should only be used under medical supervision.

SODIUM INTAKE

 

 

Recommended daily dietary intake of sodium (Australia):

Infants:

Children:

Adults:

6-25 millimoles

14-100 millimoles

40-100 millimoles

0.1-0.6 grams

0.3-2.3 grams

0.9-2.3 grams

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- Fat-Soluble Vitamins -

15: VITAMIN K

Vitamin K cannot be made by our bodies, but not all vitamin K needs to be obtained from food, because bacteria in our gut can make it (as also is the case with biotin). Probably, about half our vitamin K needs can be made by gut bacteria.

Vitamin K is involved in the formation of special liver proteins, known as coagulation factors, which, when circulating in our bloodFind out more about this term, reduce the risk of haemorrhage or bleeding. Conversely, if you are susceptible to blood clotting, medication (usually warfarin) that interferes with the formation of these vitamin-K-dependent factors may be prescribed for you. If you are taking warfarin, you need to be particularly careful not to alter your intake of vitamin-K containing foods without close medical supervision.

Newborn babies can sometimes suffer vitamin K deficiency, as can people who do not absorb fat, since vitamin K is fat soluble. Those with liver disease may require more vitamin K.

Some proteins in bone and kidney are vitamin K dependent, so that vitamin K may have functions in these tissues as well.

VITAMIN K INTAKE

Safe and adequate daily intake of vitamin K (U.S.A.):

Infants:

Children and adolescents:

Adults:

10-20 micrograms

15-100 micrograms

70-140 micrograms


Another way of expressing vitamin K requirement is to say that about 2 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day are needed, but half of this could come from gut bacteria.
 

Toxic level of intake:

Many milligrams of natural vitamin K can be ingested by healthy adults without adverse effects. Synthetic forms of vitamin K can be more of a problem in high dosages.

 

FIGURE 51: THE VITAMIN K CONTENT OF SOME FOODS

  FOOD

  VITAMIN K
  (micrograms per 100 grams of food)

Apples
Asparagus
Beans, green
Beef, mince
Beef, liver
Broccoli
Cabbage
Carrots
Cauliflower
Lettuce
Milk, cow's
Milk, cow's, skim
Oranges
Peas
Potatoes
Soya beans
Spinach
Strawberries
Wheat bran
Wheat germ

less than 5
21
22
7
100
100
100
15
150
200
5
4
less than 5
19
20
190
240
13
80
37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- Elements -

33: COPPER

Copper is an essential part of several body enzymes (natural substances required for chemical reactions in the body). It is necessary for iron metabolism, for the formation of the brown pigment, melanin, in hair and skin, and in the functioning of the body's central nervous system.

Copper deficiency due to inadequate dietary intake is rare. However, a deficiency may arise due to an inherited metabolic abnormality. Sources of copper include shellfish, liver, kidney and nuts. The amount of copper in household water supplies depends on the type of pipe and the hardness of the water. More copper is present in water from the hot tap than from the cold. For preparing hot drinks it is probably safer to heat cold water rather than use water from the hot tap, particularly for children.

COPPER INTAKE

There is no recommended dietary intake for copper in Australia.

In the U.S.A. an intake of 2 to 3 milligrams per day for adults is considered to be safe and adequate. (It is assumed that up to an occasional 10 milligrams per day is safe for adults.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- Elements -

34: ZINC

Our bodies need zinc for many different functions, which include protein and carbohydrate metabolism, wound healing, growth and vision.

Several groups of people are at risk of developing dietary zinc deficiency. If you restrict your food to vegetables, and particularly wholegrain cereals, you could become deficient in zinc. Although zinc is present in these foods, it is not utilized by the body as efficiently as the zinc in other sources, such as meat, eggs and liver. Alcoholics also develop zinc deficiency, due to an inadequate diet and to large losses of zinc in their urine. Zinc deficiency also appears to be a problem in some disease states. Inadequate zinc intake can result in retarded growth, delayed wound healing, loss of taste sensation and dermatitis.

ZINC INTAKE

The dietary requirement for zinc must take into account the different degree of availability of zinc in different foods. Animal products are more efficient sources compared with cereals. The recommended dietary intake for zinc assumes that the zinc comes from mixed animal and plant sources. For people who do not eat animal products a higher intake may be necessary.

Recommended daily dietary intake of tine (Australia):

Infants:

Children:

Adults:

Pregnancy:

Lactation:

3-6 milligrams

4.5-18 milligrams

12-16 milligrams

16-21 milligrams

18-22 milligrams

 

ZINC RDI:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Don't forget oleaginous seeds and fruit... Since they are fat (they are used to make oil), they are particularly rich (300 to 650 kcal / 100 g). These foods are of special interest for they bring huge quantities of minerals and trace-elements (potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper, manganese).
Cocoa belongs to this group and it explains why plain/dark chocolate is rightly advised if you lack magnesium. Some other seeds to degustate : almonds, pistachio-nuts, hazel-nuts, walnuts, peanuts, cocoa-nuts, olives, etc.

http://perso.club-internet.fr/fderad/e_ed1199.htm

 

 

http://www.healthyeating.org/books/foodfacts/html/data/data3e.html

 

 

 

 http://www.healthyeating.org/books/foodfacts/html/data/data5j.html

Editorial - - - (November 1999)
Fitness food

Rainy days, cloudy sky, low exposure to sunshine, fall in temperature : autumn is responsible for general tiredness.

Therefore, you'll find hereafter some dietetic advice to recover your dynamism.

If you lack drive, eat some kiwi fruit ! Indeed, these small fruit, nicknamed "vegetable mice" due to their aspect, are a wonderful source of both vitamin C (300 mg / 100 g) and iron (6 mg / 100 g). Moreover, as vitamin C helps iron to be assimilated, they are really precious. Behind them come citrus fruit (lemon, orange, grape-fruit, clementine, etc.) whose interesting content in vitamin C is wellknown (40 to 80 mg of vit. C for 100 g).

Think of dried fruit, too ! Since they were dried, they contain less water than fresh fruit. Thus, they have a higher concentration in nutrients : they bring more energy, but the point that really matters is that they contain more minerals.
Let's consider apricots. Fresh apricots contain more than 85% of water. Once dried, this proportion falls to 24%.

 

100 g of fresh apricot

100 g of dried apricot

potassium

300 mg

1 600 mg

magnesium

11 mg

60 mg

calcium

15 mg

80 mg

energy

44 kcal

272 kcal

 

 

Don't forget oleaginous seeds and fruit... Since they are fat (they are used to make oil), they are particularly rich (300 to 650 kcal / 100 g). These foods are of special interest for they bring huge quantities of minerals and trace-elements (potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper, manganese).
Cocoa belongs to this group and it explains why plain/dark chocolate is rightly advised if you lack magnesium. Some other seeds to degustate : almonds, pistachio-nuts, hazel-nuts, walnuts, peanuts, cocoa-nuts, olives, etc.

Warm up with fresh green vegetable soup, full of vitamins and minerals. If you prefer to buy a soup ready to eat, don't indulge in dehydrated soups, which are very salty. Bricks of soup are a good alternative. Soups are interesting because we consum the water in which vegetables were cooked, where vitamins and minerals have diffused. So, these nutrients aren't lost, contrarily to what occurs when we boil vegetables in water... and throw the water away !

MF.


 

Editorial of the month Next editorial...


 


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copper


Definition
Copper is an essential trace mineral. It is needed by the body in very small amounts. Copper is found in all tissues of the body, but mostly in the brain, heart, kidney and liver.

What food source is the nutrient found in? 
Copper is found in whole grains, nuts, organ meats (especially liver), shellfish (especially oysters), dried beans, dried fruits and seeds. Dark leafy greens, dried fruits, cocoa, pepper, and yeast also contain copper. Water also provides some copper, though it is considered insignificant. The amount of copper in water depends on the hardness of the water and the type of plumbing. Cooking with copper pots will increase the copper content of foods.

How does the nutrient affect the body? 
Copper helps the body make hemoglobin, which is needed to carry oxygen in red blood cells. It serves as a part of many body enzymes and helps the body produce energy in the cells. Copper also facilitates the absorption and the use of iron.

Information 
The body contains only about 75 to 100 milligrams of copper. Copper deficiency is rare but not unknown. It is rarely caused by a lack of copper in the diet. It is more likely a result of genetic problems or from consuming too much zinc. Copper deficiency can severely disrupt growth and metabolism.

There is no Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for copper. There is an estimated safe and adequate amount for copper. This is 1.5 to 3.0 milligrams for adult men and women, including pregnant women. Children and infants need less:

  • 0.4 to 0.6 milligram for infants under 6 months 0.6 to 0.7 milligrams for infants 6 months to 1 year
  • 0.7 to 1.0 milligram for children 1 to 3 years old
  • 1.0 to 1.5 milligrams for children 4 to 6 years old 1.0 to 2.0 milligrams for children 1 to 10 years old
  • 1.5 to 2.5 milligrams for adolescents 11 years and older

Harmful effects of too much copper from dietary sources are extremely rare in the United States. But toxicity from supplements is possible. Consuming more than 20 milligrams per day can lead to vomiting and nausea. Consuming even larger amounts of copper can be fatal. This can lead to liver disease.

Author: Clare Armstrong, MS, RD
Reviewer: Kimberly A. Tessmer, RD, LD
Last Updated: 05/11/00
Contributors
Potential conflict of interest information for reviewers available on request  

http://www.healthanswers.com/library/MedEnc/enc/1886.asp

diarrhea


Definition
Diarrhea is the passage of watery stools.

What are the signs and symptoms of the condition? 
The key symptom of diarrhea is frequent bouts of loose, watery stools. This may be accompanied by:

  • stomach cramps
  • stomach pain
  • nausea and vomiting

A person should call a healthcare provider right away if there is:

  • blood in the stool
  • frequent vomiting
  • increasing stomach pain
  • little or no urine
  • a high fever
  • foul-smelling diarrhea that contains pus

What are the causes and risks of the condition? 
Viruses cause most episodes of diarrhea. When children get these viral infections, they can have severe bouts of diarrhea.

Diarrhea may also be caused by:

  • a bacterial infection
  • a blockage in the lower intestines
  • other intestinal injuries and problems
  • diet
  • certain medicines

Some people get diarrhea often. A traveler who has developed persistent diarrhea should call his or her healthcare provider for advice.

What can be done to prevent the condition? 
Frequent hand washing with soap and warm water is the best way to prevent diarrhea. This is especially important if a person has been exposed to anyone who has diarrhea or has used a public restroom.

It is often hard to prevent diarrhea in children who attend daycare. However, frequent hand washing at the daycare center may reduce the risks of diarrhea.

To help prevent travelers' diarrhea it is recommended that individuals avoid drinking contaminated water, including ice, and food. They should also avoid uncooked vegetables or fresh salads that may be contaminated with bacteria.

How is the condition diagnosed? 
Usually diagnosis relies on a person's report of his or her symptoms. If there is severe pain or blood in the stool, a healthcare provider will generally examine the area around the stomach. X-rays may be taken. Occasionally, a scope is used to look inside a portion of the gastrointestinal tract.

What are the treatments for the condition? 
Dehydration is common in people with severe diarrhea. That is why getting plenty of fluids is very important in treating diarrhea.

People who have diarrhea should try to keep eating their normal diet. Adults and children should have regular meals three times a day. It is important that infants continue to drink formula or milk. There are oral electrolyte solutions, like Pedialyte, that replace lost minerals in infants with diarrhea.

Adults may also be helped by over-the-counter drugs, such as:

  • loperamide
  • bismuth subsalicylate

These drugs should be used only for a short while. A person should call his or her healthcare provider if diarrhea lasts for more than 2 to 3 days.

If diarrhea leads to dehydration, intravenous fluids may be given through a tube in a vein in the hand or arm.

What are the side effects of the treatments? 
Some people find that over-the-counter drugs for diarrhea may cause:

  • bloating
  • constipation
  • nausea
  • sleepiness

What happens after treatment for the condition? 
Diarrhea usually ends in 2 to 3 days, if not sooner. Generally, a few days of diarrhea are not a cause for concern.

However, a healthcare provider should be consulted if a person:

  • has diarrhea for more than 2 to 3 days
  • feels worsening abdominal pain
  • has blood in the stool
  • has abdominal bloating
  • has worsening nausea or vomiting

Author: James Broomfield, MD
Reviewer: Eileen McLaughlin, RN, BSN
Last Updated: 03/13/01
Contributors
Potential conflict of interest information for reviewers available on request  

http://www.healthanswers.com/library/MedEnc/enc/1886.asp

 

 

- Elements -

31: SULPHUR

We obtain most of our sulphur from proteins in the diet. The essential amino acidFind out more about this term methionine (see the Protein Food Charts) is one of several sulphur-containing components of protein. The proteins are broken down into their constituent amino acids, and the sulphur-containing amino acids are reused for the formation of body proteins needed for growth, tissue maintenance and enzyme production. New sulphur-containing compounds are also made by our bodies from the protein components. Some of these have metabolic function, and some are used to remove potentially toxic substances, including certain drugs, from the body.

SULPHUR INTAKE

There is no recommended dietary intake for sulphur.

The sulphur that is essential for the functions described above is provided by protein and is included in the recommended dietary intake for protein.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sulphur

 

 

 

 

Diet - protein; Nonessential protein; Essential protein

Definition    Return to top

Proteins are complex organic compounds. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. The presence of nitrogen differentiates protein from carbohydrate and fat.

Food sources    Return to top

Proteins are described as essential and nonessential proteins or amino acids. The human body requires approximately 20 amino acids for the synthesis of its proteins. The body can make only 13 of the amino acids; these are known as the nonessential amino acids. They are, in fact, essential but people do not have to get them from food we eat. There are 9 essential amino acids that are obtained only from food, and not made in the body.

If the protein in a food supplies enough of the essential amino acids, it is called a complete protein. If the protein of a food does not supply all the essential amino acids, it is called an incomplete protein.

All meat and other animal products are sources of complete proteins. These include beef, lamb, pork, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, milk, and milk products.

Protein in foods such as grains, fruits, and vegetables are either low incomplete protein or lack one of the essential amino acids. These food sources are considered incomplete proteins. Plant proteins can be combined to include all of the essential amino acids and form a complete protein. Examples of combined, complete plant proteins are rice and beans, milk and wheat cereal, and corn and beans.

Functions    Return to top

Protein is the main component of muscles, organs, and glands. Every living cell and all body fluids, except bile and urine, contain protein. The cells of muscles, tendons, and ligaments are maintained with protein. Children and adolescents require protein for growth and development.

Recommendations    Return to top

The body does not make more protein than usual when dietary protein is increased. The extra protein is broken down in the body and the amino acids are used for energy or turned into fat. A nutritionally balanced diet provides adequate protein. Even vegetarians are able to get enough protein if they eat the proper combination of plant proteins.

The amount of protein eaten normally in the United States is more than is recommended. Approximately 20% of the total daily calories should come from protein. Two to three servings of protein-rich food will meet the daily needs of most adults.

The following are the recommended serving sizes for protein:

Select lean meat, poultry without skin, fish, and dry beans, lentils, and legumes often. These are the protein choices that are the lowest in fat. For more information, see the food guide pyramid.

Side effects    Return to top

A diet high in meat could cause an excessive saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Another potential problem is that a high-protein diet may put a strain on the kidneys. Extra waste matter, which is the end product of protein metabolism, is excreted in the urine.

Information   


Definition: Organic compounds that combine to form proteins.

When proteins are digested, amino acids are left. They are classified as either "essential" amino acids (which must be consumed in the diet), or "nonessential" amino acids (which can be made by the body from the essential amino acids).

Alternative names   

Starches; Simple sugars; Sugars; Complex carbohydrates; Diet - carbohydrates; Simple carbohydrates

Definition    Return to top

A large group of sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in similar proportions.

Food sources    Return to top

Complex carbohydrates are a good source of minerals, vitamins, and fiber. They are starches found in:

Simple carbohydrates also contain vitamins and minerals. They naturally occur in:

Simple carbohydrates are also found in processed and refined sugars such as:

Refined sugars provide calories, but lack vitamins, minerals, and fiber.

Functions    Return to top

The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and the nervous system. The body breaks down starches and sugars into a substance called glucose, which is used for energy by the body.

Recommendations    Return to top

It is recommended that 50 to 60% of our total calories come from carbohydrates, preferably from complex carbohydrates (starches) and naturally occurring sugars rather than processed or refined sugars.

High-sugar foods are simple carbohydrates that provide calories, but minimal nutritional benefits. Within this category, healthy choices include fruit and low-fat or skim milk.

To increase complex carbohydrates:

Ounce for ounce, starches contain the same number of calories as protein and less than half the calories of fat. Carbohydrates provide 4 Calories per gram, and fat provides 9 Calories per gram. Therefore, it is wise to limit processed and refined sugars.

Here are recommended serving sizes for foods high in carbohydrate:

For information about how many servings are recommended see the food guide pyramid.

Here is a sample 2,000 Calorie menu of which 50 to 60% of its total calories are from carbohydrates:

Side effects    Return to top

Excessive carbohydrates can cause an increase in the total caloric intake, causing obesity.

Deficient carbohydrates can cause a lack of calories (malnutrition), or excessive intake of fats to make up the calories.

Note: When speaking of nutrition, 1 Calorie = 1,000 calories or 1 kcal.

Calories - diet

Definition    Return to top

A "diet" includes everything that is consumed. A well-balanced diet is based on scientific principles to provide sound nutrition, adequate intake of nutrients, and promote optimal health.

Food sources    Return to top

All foods are considered.

Functions    Return to top

All foods and liquids that are consumed contribute to the diet. They contribute energy and nutrients. The energy in food is measured in Calories. One (small) calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Centigrade (from 14.5 to 15.5). Nutrition is measured in terms of (large) Calories; one Calorie (or kcal) is 1000 calories; this is the amount of energy required to raise one kilogram of water (about 2.2 pounds) one degree Centigrade.
A persons Caloric need is determined using a variety of mathematical equations. One’s age, height, current weight, desired weight and height are taken into account.

Recommendations    Return to top

See balanced diet.

Recommendations for limiting calories:

See also:
anorexia nervosa
bulimia
exercise and fat
food guide pyramid
height and weight tables
intentional weight loss
keeping fit
obesity
physical activity
weight control - best time to start
weight lifting and weight control
weight loss (unintentional)
weight loss and age
weight management
weight problems and children

Side effects    Return to top

Diet - cholesterol

Definition    Return to top

A soft waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the nervous system, skin, muscle, liver, intestines, and heart. It is made by the body and obtained from animal products in the diet.

Food sources    Return to top

Dietary cholesterol is present only in foods of animal origin (not in foods of plant origin).

Cholesterol is found in eggs, dairy products, meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Egg yolks and organ meats (liver, kidney, sweetbread, and brain) are high in dietary cholesterol. Fish generally contains less cholesterol than other meats, but some shellfish is high in cholesterol content. Foods of plant origin (vegetables, fruits, grains, cereals, nuts, and seeds) contain no cholesterol. Fat content is not a good measurement of cholesterol content. For example, liver and other organ meats are low in fat but very high in cholesterol.

Functions    Return to top

Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver for normal body functions including the production of hormones, bile acid, and vitamin D. It is transported in the blood to be used by all parts of the body.

Recommendations    Return to top

Approximately 25% of the adult population in the U.S. has elevated blood cholesterol levels. More than half of the adult population has blood cholesterol levels that are higher than the "desirable" range, as specified by the medical community. Elevated cholesterol levels often begin in childhood. Some children may be at higher risk than others secondary to family history.

A total cholesterol level less than 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) is considered "desirable" because this level represents the least risk of heart disease. When the level is above 200 mg/dl the risk for coronary heart disease increases ("borderline high" cholesterol). People with levels greater than 240 mg/dl are at even greater risk ("high" cholesterol). Children who are identified to be at high risk should have two lipid profiles to confirm levels are elevated.

To lower high cholesterol levels, eat less than 30% of the total daily calories from fat. Of that 30%, less than one-third should be from saturated fat and not more than one-third should be from polyunsaturated fat. At least one-third of the total fat calories should be from monounsaturated fat. Less than 300 milligrams (mg) of dietary cholesterol per day should be consumed.

Recommendations for children’s diets are similar to those of adults. It is imperative that children’s caloric intake be adequate to support growth, activity level and that the child achieve and maintain a desirable body weight

The following two sample menus provide examples of an average American diet and a low-fat diet. The nutrient analysis shows that, for the same number of calories, a low-fat diet provides 190 mg of dietary cholesterol versus the 510 mg of dietary cholesterol of an average American diet.

AVERAGE AMERICAN DIET

LOW FAT DIET

TOTALS
Average American diet:

Low fat diet:

The sample menus demonstrate that because the fat is high in calories, the low-fat diet has a greater quantity of food than the typical American diet for the same 2,000 Calories.

The low fat diet example is too low in fat for small children to promote good growth. In addition, it may be difficult for them to consume such a large volume of food. Children should have a diet that is closer to thirty per cent of the calories from fat. Lower fat diets may be appropriate in some cases but require careful follow-up from a physician and dietitian.

Side effects    Return to top

Excessive cholesterol contributes to atherosclerosis and subsequent heart disease. The risk of developing heart disease or atherosclerosis increases as the level of blood cholesterol increases.

Note: When speaking of nutrition, 1 Calorie = 1,000 calories or 1 kcal.

1:   E N E R G Y:
KILOJOULES / KILOCALORIES

Energy has traditionally been expressed as calories or kilocalories. More recently, the units of energy have been changed to kilojoules. There are 4.2 kilojoules in 1 kilocalorie. For convenience, both units are shown on the chart. Someone having 2000 kilocalories each day would be having 8400 kilojoules, also known as 8.4 megajoules. The energy value of a food indicates its value to the body as a fuel. This may be less than the heat value obtained experimentally by 'burning' the food outside the body in what is called a 'bomb calorimeter'. After a food is ingested, some of its energy may be 'lost' during digestion and metabolism. Although the energy value of some foods has been found by combustion in a bomb calorimeter, more usually the amounts of the macronutrients - fat, protein, carbohydrateFind out more about this term and alcohol (ethanol) - in a food are taken into account when assessing the total energy value of the food. The energy value for each macronutrient must be known, and an allowance made for body losses. The first system for giving energy values to the macronutrients was described by Dr W. O. Atwater in 1899. Modified, the 'Atwater factors'Find out more about this term are:

 

kilojoules per gram

kilocalories per gram

Fat
Alcohol
Protein
Carbohydrate

37
29
17
16

9
7
4
4

 

Important Basics

Energy

-

Water

-

Dietary Fibre

-

Protein

-

Phenylalanine

-

Carbohydyrate

-

Fat

-

Cholesterol

-

Saturated and Unsaturated Fat

-

Alcohol

 

Food charts list:
beverages
cereals, biscuits,cakes,deserts
egg and cheese dishes
fats and oils
fish and seafoods
fruit
meat and meat products
milk and milk products
nuts
sauces and condiments
soups (as served)
sugars, jams and spreads
sweets
vegetables

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The energy value of a particular food is calculated from a knowledge of macronutrient composition and the modified Atwater factors for these macronutrients. The energy values shown in the chart have been obtained with this approach.

Fat is the most energy-dense macronutrient, followed by alcohol, protein and carbohydrate. For example, one double Scotch has about twice as many kilocalories as a glass of soft drink; a glass of full-cream milk has about twice the kilocalories as a glass of soft drink or of skimmed milk Dietary fibre or roughage is not usually ascribed an energy value for humans, but it is now recognized that some dietary fibre components are used as fuels by the microflora (bacteria) of the gut, especially in the large intestine. Some of the products of dietary fibre digestion may provide energy for the gut lining and some may actually be absorbed for general bodily metabolism. Vitamins and elements have no energy value.

Energy requirement can be thought of as the amount needed to maintain the basic processes of life at rest, that is, basal metabolism, plus the amount needed for physical activity under a variety of circumstances. Body weight is an important factor in determining how much energy we need, since more energy will be needed to sustain and move a greater body mass.

You should refer to the charts of energy requirement according to age, sex and level of physical activity (Figures 11 and 12), together with the energy values of foods. However, remember that there is a great deal of individual variation in the efficiency with which ingested food energy is utilized for work by the body. If your body is relatively inefficient in its use of food energy, loss will occur in faeces and by relatively more heat production.

The word 'energy' has been used here in the nutritional sense of 'provider of fuel' and not in the sense of providing zest and vitality. High-energy foods do not necessarily affect how we feel. Food products are sometimes promoted as mood-changers on the basis of their energy value, but this is simply a reflection of the double-meaning of 'energy'.


 

 

 

 

 

 

2:  W A T E R:

Water is perhaps the most essential of nutrients since we can do without it for only a short time - days at the outside. This is because, without an adequate flow of urine, waste products would build up in the body, and with the absence of moisture loss it would not be possible to regulate body temperature. However, we can obtain water from a number of sources, as can be seen by reference to Figure 18. Water may be taken as a beverage and as part of food; water is produced in our body cells following the metabolism (chemical breakdown) of fat, alcohol, protein and carbohydrate. Food usually provides more than half our daily water requirement.

The more water a food contains, the less energy dense it is, that is, water-rich foods have few kilocalories (or kilojoules) per 100 grams.

The need for water is influenced by environmental conditions. For example, in a hot climate a great deal of water can be lost not only as sweat, but also in expired air.

Making water supplies hygienic has contributed greatly to human health. More recently, the addition of fluoride to water supplies deficient in it has reduced dental decay. In Australia, nutritionists are encouraging people to drink water in preference to other beverages and to drink it in adequate amounts in dry conditions and with increased physical activity. It is sensible to have four or five glasses of 200 millilitres each day; by so doing, less energy and alcohol will be consumed. With that much water you'll be less thirsty for alcohol, coffee and other beverages and probably eat less food. Fluoride intake will be improved for many. Urine flow will increase and the risk of kidney stones decrease.

WATER INTAKE

Safe and adequate daily intake of water:

ALL SOURCES
(Millilitres)

DRINKS

Adult in a temperate climate

2500

1000
(800-1600)

Adult during exercise and thermal stress

up to
9000-10000

up to
6000-7000

Toxic level of intake

It is a most unusual event to be able to overload the body with water by drinking too much. The body compensates by increasing urine output. However, there can be an accumulation of body water in certain disease states. Occasionally, for psychological reasons, over-consumption of water does occur.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3:  DIETARY FIBRE:

Dietary fibre is a term that refers to a group of food components that pass through the stomach and small intestine undigested and reach the large intestine virtually unchanged. Most other nutrients are digested and are being used in other parts of the body by this stage. During its passage through the large intestine some components of dietary fibre are broken down to varying degrees and absorbed by the body; the remaining components are excreted in the faeces.

To the extent that products of dietary fibre breakdown in the large intestine are absorbed, a small amount of energy is contributed, probably of the order of 13 kilojoules (3 kilocalories) per gram of dietary fibre ingested. Diets that are high in dietary fibre produce a slower rate of stomach emptying, and bulky faeces which pass more quickly through the large intestine.

The current attention being given to the role of dietary fibre in prevention of certain diseases is largely due to the observation that patterns of disease observed in Africa and Asia were different from those in Western countries. It was suggested that the dietary fibre content was associated with this difference. Although it is not yet proven, there is evidence to suggest that a diet high in dietary fibre can be of value for treating or preventing such disorders as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, diverticular disease, hiatus hernia and haemorrhoids. Some components of dietary fibre may also be of value in reducing the level of cholesterol in blood and thereby decreasing a risk factor for coronary heart disease and the development of gallstones. Dietary fibre is beneficial in the treatment of some diabetics.

The actual role of dietary fibre in many of these disorders is not known. It may be that dietary fibre as such is not the major factor. When high dietary fibre foods are eaten, other foods, which may be responsible for the disease, are either reduced in quantity or completely excluded. For example, diets that are high in fibre tend to be low in energy and these diets can be useful in weight control. People who are grossly overweight (more than 130 per cent of desirable weight or with a body mass index of about 30 kilograms per square metre, see p. 17) are more prone to heart disease and diabetes.

The analysis of dietary fibre in food is very complex and only a limited number of foods have been examined in detail. Dietary fibre from different foods, and even different samples of the same food, contain varying quantities of the components that collectively make up dietary fibre. Each of these components has different biological properties and it is frequently not clear which of these is most beneficial. The different components of dietary fibre and their sources are shown in Figure 44.Foods of animal origin do not contain dietary fibre.

FIGURE 44: COMPONENTS OF DIETARY FIBRE

COMPONENT

SOURCE

Cellulose

All food plants

Hemicellulose

All food plants, especially cereal
bran

Pectin

Mainly fruit

Lignin

Mainly cereals and 'woody'
vegetables

Gums and some food
thickeners

Food additives in processed
foods

INTAKE OF DIETARY FIBRE

There is no recommended dietary intake (RDI) for fibre as such in Australia. However, the Australian Department of Health has among its dietary goals for Australians an increased intake of fruit, vegetables, bread and cereals, all of which are sources of dietary fibre. The greatest amount of dietary fibre in wheat is in the outer layer or bran, of the wheat grain. When white flour is produced, the bran layer is removed and the dietary-fibre content of the flour is greatly reduced. Flour made from whole grains contains about three times as much dietary fibre as white flour. It is probably reasonable to aim for a dietary fibre intake of between 35 and 45 grams per day (see Figure 5), compared with current intakes in Western countries of about 20 grams per day.

Important Basics

-

Energy

-

Water

Dietary Fibre

-

Protein

-

Phenylalanine

-

Carbohydyrate

-

Fat

-

Cholesterol

-

Saturated and Unsaturated Fat

-

Alcohol

 

Also on this page:
-  Figure 44:
   Dietary fibre components
-  Intake of dietary fibre
-  Dietary Fibre Charts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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5:  PHENYLALANINE:

Phenylalanine is a small organic chemical belonging to a group of substances called amino acidsFind out more about this term. Amino acids are combined in nature to form proteins. When we eat foods containing proteins, the proteins are broken down during digestion into their constituent amino acids. Our bodies use some of these to make new proteins and other substances that are essential for life. Phenylalanine is one of the so-called 'essential' amino acids and must be obtained by the body from food. You can obtain all the essential amino acids by consuming a mixed diet containing the recommended intake of protein (see Chart 4 (Protein)).

However, there are some disorders in which the normal metabolism of amino acids is defective. These are genetically determined and can usually be detected soon after birth. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited defect in which phenylalanine is incompletely and abnormally metabolized. Unless detected and treated early this can lead to mental retardation. Tests to detect this disorder are routinely carried out on all new babies born in a hospital.

Treatment for PKU consists in strictly limiting the amount of phenylalanine in the diet. Because phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, its complete absence will retard growth and development. Therefore diets for PKU children restrict the amount of phenylalanine to a level that will allow both normal growth and normal intelligence. They must be planned in consultation with a doctor and a dietitian. A woman who was a PKU child and who subsequently becomes pregnant must restrict her phenylalanine intake during the pregnancy to avoid the possibility of damage to the baby.

PHENYLALANINE INTAKE

Only children who have phenylketonuria (PKU) must strictly control the foods they eat to ensure that they do not have an excessive intake of phenylalanine. This must be under the supervision of a dietitian or doctor. The chart gives the approximate amount of phenylalanine in a variety of foods.


 

 

 

6:  CARBOHYDRATE:

Carbohydrates can be divided into three main groups:

Sugars and starches in food are sources of energy. Australians obtain 20 to 60 per cent of their total dietary energy from carbohydrate. Cellulose and some related substances are not used by our bodies as a significant source of energy. Nevertheless, these components are very important as, together with other indigestible substances, they constitute dietary fibre. The role of dietary fibre is discussed on Chart 3.

SUGARS

The main sugars in food are sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose and lactose. Sucrose is obtained from sugar cane and is usually called 'sugar'. In addition, sucrose (as well as glucose and fructose) is found in fruit, fruit juices and honey. Besides providing energy, sugars also produce the sensation of sweetness. Each sugar contributes the same amount of energy (kilocalories) to our diet regardless of its sweetness. Different sugars are not equally sweet and the degree of sweetness of a food is often not a good indication of the amount of sugars present. For example, as shown in Figure 45, maltose is only half as sweet as sucrose.

FIGURE 45: SWEETNESS OF SUGARS RELATIVE TO SUCROSE

SUGAR

RELATIVE SWEETNESS

OTHER NAME

Sucrose
Glucose
Fructose
Lactose
Maltose
Sorbitol

1
0.7
1.1
0.4
0.5
0.5

Sugar
Grape sugar
Fruit sugar
Milk sugar
Malt sugar
-

Sugars are widely distributed in foods, particularly processed foods where their sweetness may sometimes be masked or hidden by other ingredients. Often the list of ingredients on the label will give an indication of the relative amount of sugar present. For a fuller discussion on sugars, see Sugars and Health.

The use of non-nutritive or artificial sweeteners can be used to make food and drink sweet without contributing significant amounts of energy. Although there is controversy about their safety, the most widely used artificial sweeteners are saccharin and cyclamate. The label of any food or drink containing these sweeteners must indicate that they are present. An artificial sweetener recently approved by some health authorities is aspartame. It has about the same energy value as sugar but because it is 180 times sweeter, very little needs to be used. The amount of aspartame providing sweetness equivalent to one teaspoon of sugar will only provide one-tenth of a kilocalorie.

STARCH

Starch is the main form of carbohydrate in our food. It is present in a variety of cereals, vegetables and fruit, with major contributions from flour, potatoes and legumes (beans, peas). Starchy foods are usually cooked to improve digestibility and give a more desirable texture and flavour. During the ripening of fruit, starch is changed into sugars, which give sweetness to ripe fruits. In contrast to sugars, starch is often accompanied by significant amounts of other nutrients including dietary fibre. Starch has the same energy value as sugars. Health authorities are in agreement that we should increase our consumption of foods containing starch, such as wholegrain bread, cereals, fruits, vegetables and nuts.

CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE

There is no specific dietary requirement for carbohydrate because energy can also be derived from protein, fat and alcohol. However, a diet that does not contain carbohydrate can lead to muscle breakdown, ketosis and dehydration. This can be prevented by 50 to 100 grams of carbohydrate per day, but levels above this are desirable. Sources of complex carbohydrates, such as starch, are recommended as these often also provide necessary vitamins, elements (minerals) and dietary fibre.

 

 

 

 

Update Date: 2/4/01

- Important Basics Food Charts -

4:  PROTEIN:

Protein is an essential part of the diet. It is made up of various combinations of small organic chemicals called amino acidsFind out more about this term. When we eat food containing protein it is broken down during digestion into its constituent amino acids. These amino acids are absorbed by our bodies and are used to produce new proteins and other necessary substances. Our bodies can make some of the amino acids needed to manufacture proteins, but others must be obtained from the diet; these are the eight so-called 'essential' amino acids. In addition, one other amino acid is needed by infants during early growth and development.

Proteins form part of the structure of the body, so that a continual supply of amino acids is needed. Our bodies are able to put these basic amino acid units together, using different arrangements of amino acids, to produce specific proteins, which can only be produced if all the necessary amino acids are available.

The nutritional value of a protein food can be judged by its ability to provide both the quantity and number of essential amino acids needed by the body. Different food sources contain different groups of proteins, which are made up of different arrangements and amounts of amino acids. In general, proteins from animal sources are of greater nutritional value because they usually contain all the essential amino acids. Proteins from plant sources, such as cereals and vegetables, may be deficient in one or other of the essential amino acids. For example, the proteins obtained from wheat lack adequate quantities of one essential amino acid, and those from beans are deficient in another.

Because the deficiency is different in each food, when they are eaten together they complement each other and the mixture is of higher nutritional value than the separate foods, and is as good as animal protein. It is important, particularly for strict vegetarians who do not consume dairy or egg products (see Figure 21), that a variety of different types of protein foods are eaten.

Cooking can alter the amino-acid composition of protein and this usually results in desirable flavour and browning development. Very little nutritional value is lost.

RECOMMENDED DAILY DIETARY INTAKE OF PROTEIN IN AUSTRALIA

The recommended dietary intake (RDI) in Australia is one gram per kilogram of body RECOMMENDED DAILY DIETARY INTAKE OF PROTEIN IN AUSTRALIA

The recommended dietary intake (RDI) in Australia is one gram per kilogram of body weight per RECOMMENDED DAILY DIETARY INTAKE OF PROTEIN IN AUSTRALIA

The recommended dietary intake (RDI) in Australia is one gram per kilogram of body weight per day. The protein intake for a 70-kilogram man is 70 grams and for a 58-kilogram woman, 58 grams per day. Growing children and pregnant and lactating women have a greater requirement for protein because of the additional needs of these conditions (see Figure 6). People who have had severe infections or surgery may require additional protein. Because of the margin of safety in the RDI for protein it is usually not necessary to increase protein intake for additional muscular activity such as required for heavy work or training.

A deficiency of protein in the diet can lead to muscle wasting, oedema, anaemiaFind out more about this term and, in children, a slowing or stopping of growth. These conditions are usually seen as a result of chronic protein malnutrition. Having an adequate energy intake (see Figure 11 and Figure 12) will almost always ensure an adequate protein intake.

Higher levels of protein consumption appear to be neither beneficial nor harmful. However, it is possible that additional calcium may be required to counterbalance an excessive protein intake. Also there is a higher load of protein breakdown products, which must be excreted by the kidneys.


 day. The protein intake for a 70-kilogram man is 70 grams and for a 58-kilogram woman, 58 grams per day. Growing children and pregnant and lactating women have a greater requirement for protein because of the additional needs of these conditions (see Figure 6). People who have had severe infections or surgery may require additional protein. Because of the margin of safety in the RDI for protein it is usually not necessary to increase protein intake for additional muscular activity such as required for heavy work or training.

A deficiency of protein in the diet can lead to muscle wasting, oedema, anaemia and, in children, a slowing or stopping of growth. These conditions are usually seen as a result of chronic protein malnutrition. Having an adequate energy intake (see Figure 11 and Figure 12) will almost always ensure an adequate protein intake.

Higher levels of protein consumption appear to be neither beneficial nor harmful. However, it is possible that additional calcium may be required to counterbalance an excessive protein intake. Also there is a higher load of protein breakdown products, which must be excreted by the kidneys.


 weight per day. The protein intake for a 70-kilogram man is 70 grams and for a 58-kilogram woman, 58 grams per day. Growing children and pregnant and lactating women have a greater requirement for protein because of the additional needs of these conditions (see Figure 6). People who have had severe infections or surgery may require additional protein. Because of the margin of safety in the RDI for protein it is usually not necessary to increase protein intake for additional muscular activity such as required for heavy work or training.

A deficiency of protein in the diet can lead to muscle wasting, oedema, anaemia and, in children, a slowing or stopping of growth. These conditions are usually seen as a result of chronic protein malnutrition. Having an adequate energy intake (see Figure 11 and Figure 12) will almost always ensure an adequate protein intake.

Higher levels of protein consumption appear to be neither beneficial nor harmful. However, it is possible that additional calcium may be required to counterbalance an excessive protein intake. Also there is a higher load of protein breakdown products, which must be excreted by the kidneys.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Graph of Protein RDI in Australia

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RECOMMENDED DAILY DIETARY INTAKE OF PROTEIN IN AUSTRALIA

The recommended dietary intake (RDI) in Australia is one gram per kilogram of body weight per day. The protein intake for a 70-kilogram man is 70 grams and for a 58-kilogram woman, 58 grams per day. Growing children and pregnant and lactating women have a greater requirement for protein because of the additional needs of these conditions (see Figure 6). People who have had severe infections or surgery may require additional protein. Because of the margin of safety in the RDI for protein it is usually not necessary to increase protein intake for additional muscular activity such as required for heavy work or training.

A deficiency of protein in the diet can lead to muscle wasting, oedema, anaemiaFind out more about this term and, in children, a slowing or stopping of growth. These conditions are usually seen as a result of chronic protein malnutrition. Having an adequate energy intake (see Figure 11 and Figure 12) will almost always ensure an adequate protein intake.

Higher levels of protein consumption appear to be neither beneficial nor harmful. However, it is possible that additional calciumFind out more about this term may be required to counterbalance an excessive protein intake. Also there is a higher load of protein breakdown products, which must be excreted by the kidneys.


 

- Elements -

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

39: SELENIUM

Selenium is an element that forms part of an important body enzyme (substances essential for body metabolism), which has an antioxidant action in preventing, for example, breakdown of fats (lipids) to substances that can be damaging to the body. The enzyme probably takes care of what other antioxidantsFind out more about this term like vitamin E have failed to do because they were not present in sufficient amounts.

Selenium deficiency has been observed in patients receiving all their nutrition via the veins (parenteral nutrition), but with selenium-poor solutions.'Keshan disease', a disease of heart muscle affecting children, is a selenium-deficiency disease seen in a selenium poor area of North-Eastern China.

SELENIUM INTAKE

Recommended daily dietary intake of selenium (Australia):

Infants:

Children:

Adult men:

Adult women:

Pregnancy:

Lactation:

10-15 micrograms

25-85 micrograms

85 micrograms

70 micrograms

80 micrograms

85 micrograms

 

FIGURE 56: SELENIUM CONTENT OF SOME FOODS

  FOOD

  SELENIUM CONTENT
  (micrograms per 100 grams of food)

Seafood
Organ meats
Muscle meats
Cereals
Dairy products
Fruits
Vegetables
Brown sugar
White sugar

100
20
20
20
6
1
1
1
0.3

 

 

 

Selenium in diet

Contents of this page:

Alternative names   

diet and selenium

Definition    Return to top

Selenium is an essential trace element. It is an integral part of enzymes.

Food sources    Return to top

Fish, shellfish, red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver, and garlic are all good sources of selenium. The amount of selenium in vegetables is dependent on the selenium content of the soil. Brewer's yeast and wheat germ, both considered "health foods," are also good sources of selenium.

Functions    Return to top

Selenium has a variety of functions. The main one is its role as an antioxidant in the enzyme selenium-glutathione-peroxidase.Â

Selenium also seems to stimulate antibody formation in response to vaccines.  It also may provide protection from the toxic effects of heavy metals and other substances.  It may assist in the synthesis of protein, in growth and development, and in fertility, especially in men.  Selenium has been shown to improve the production of sperm and sperm motility.

Recommendations    Return to top

The suggested intake by nutrition experts is 50 to 200 micrograms for adults, which the average diet in the U.S. usually provides.  Selenium is often available in multi-vitamin and mineral supplements.

Specific recommendations for each nutrient depend on age, gender, and other factors (such as pregnancy).  The U.S. Department of Agriculture has a PDF file that lists these recommendations.

Side effects    Return to top

Keshan disease has been documented as being caused by a deficiency of selenium.  It causes an abnormality of the heart muscle, and it claimed the lives of many children in China until the relationship to selenium was discovered and selenium supplements were provided.

Selenium deficiency may also occur in patients fed intravenously for long periods of time.

Increased intake of selenium can lead to toxicity in cattle grazing in selenium-rich soil.  The cattle demonstrate muscle, visual and heart problems.

The amount of selenium required to cause toxicity in humans is not known.  Excess selenium intake can cause problems with the strength of teeth and the tooth enamel.  Other problems may include loss of teeth, hair, and nails.  Skin inflammation, nausea, and fatigue can also occur.

Update Date: 2/11/01

 38: MANGANESE

Although the element manganese forms a part of substances essential for body metabolism, known as enzymes, no definite deficiency has been recognized in humans. In animals, deficiency can lead to abnormalities of the developing skeleton, of balance, and of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Manganese poisoning from food is very unlikely.

 

MANGANESE INTAKE

The safe and adequate range of intake for adults (U.S.A.) is 2500 to 5000 micrograms per day.

 

FIGURE 55: MANGANESE CONTENT OF SOME FOODS

  FOOD

  MANGANESE CONTENT
  (micrograms per 100 grams of food)

Nuts
Wholegrain cereals
Vegetables
Fats and oils
Fruits
Meat
Poultry
Fish and seafood

1700
700
250
180
100
20
20
5

 

 

 

By far the most prolific seaweed, Laminaria, (commonly called "kelp") has a local biomass estimated to be in excess of 10 million tonnes. Rich in a whole range of useful constituents and with an exceptionally quick re-growth period, this is a truly renewable resource; an almost infinitely sustainable crop.

As it is covered by water most or all of its life, this seaweed spends its time absorbing minerals and vitamins from the seawater around it. It is rich in amino acids (tryptophan, threonine, icoleucine, lysine, methionine, cysline, phenylalanine, tyrosine, valine, arginine, histidine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, proline, serine). Essential nutrients are also present such as Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, Sodium, Sulphur, Alginic acid, Laminaran, Mannitol, Iron, Copper, Manganese, Boron, Zinc and Iodine. It also contains natural vitamins C, B1, B2, B7 (Niacin) B12, D, E, K, A, Biotin, Selenium and Folic acid. In addition, these species have unique qualities that allow the beneficial ingredients present in their simple cell structure to be easily assimilated when digested by humans and animals.

Gathering Laminaria from Orkney shores

 

 http://www.seaweed-products.co.uk/Laminaria%20seaweed.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Using the food charts

 

 

Important basics

 

 

Fat-soluble vitamins

 

 

Water-soluble vitamins

 

 

Elements

 

Others

 

 

- Elements -

37: CHROMIUM

Chromium is considered to be an essential element for humans. Those without it in their diets, such as hospital patients on artificial feeds, develop a diabetes-like condition, with high blood sugar (glucose) levels. The availability of chromium to the body may depend on the form in which it is present in food. For example, it is found in a form in association with other compounds in Brewer's Yeast and known as 'Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF)'. Elderly people may be an at-risk group from chromium deficiency.

Relatively few foods have been analysed for chromium.

CHROMIUM INTAKE

Safe and adequate chromium intake (U.S.A.):

Infants:

Children:
 

Adults:

0.01-0.06 milligram

1-3 years: 0.02-0.08 milligram
4-6 years: 0.03-0.12 milligram
7+ years: 0.05-0.2 milligram

0.05-0.2 milligram

 

 

FIGURE 54: CHROMIUM CONTENT OF SOME FOODS

  FOOD

  CHROMIUM CONTENT FOOD
  (micrograms per 100 grams of food)

Egg yolk
Brewer's yeast
Beef
Cheese
Liver
Wine
Bread, wholemeal, wheat
Black pepper
Rye bread
Chilli, fresh
Apple peel
Potatoes, old
Oysters
Potatoes, new
Margarine
Spaghetti
Cornflakes
Spirits
Butter
Spinach
Egg white
Oranges
Beer
Apples, peeled

183
112
57
56
55
45
42
35
30
30
27
27
26
21
18
15
14
14
13
10
8
5
3-30
1

 

 

Elements

-

Sodium

-

Potassium

-

Calcium

-

Magnesium

-

Iron

-

Phosporus

-

Sulphur

-

Chlorine

-

Copper

-

Zinc

-

Iodine

-

Fluorine

Chromium

-

Manganese

-

Selenium

-

Cobalt

-

Molybdenum

-

Nickel

-

Tin

-

Silicon

-

Vanadium

-

Cadmium

 

Also on this page:

-  Chromium intake
-  Figure 54: Chromium
   content of some food

 

 

top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- Elements -

27: CALCIUM

Calcium, in combination with phosphorus and other elements, is necessary to give strength to bonesFind out more about this term and teeth. When our dietary intake of calcium is greater than our bodies' requirements some of the excess calcium is stored in our bones. When our day-to-day intake of calcium does not meet requirements, the calcium stored in bone becomes available to meet this shortfall.

Calcium has other important roles. It is essential for normal clotting of blood and is a vital link in transmission of nerve impulses. It is also an essential element in enzyme regulation, in the secretion of insulin in adults, and in regulation of muscle function.

During periods of growth the demand for calcium is greater than usual, although some calcium is incorporated into bone at certain other stages of life. Thus children, adolescents and pregnant and lactating women need additional calcium. Adults continually need to replace calcium that is lost from the body in urine and faeces and to a lesser extent in sweat.

Our bodies' utilization of the calcium in food can be adversely affected by the presence of two chemicals called phytic acid and oxalic acid. Phylic acid is found in the bran portion of cereals, and oxalic acid is present in significant quantities in spinach and rhubarb. The magnitude of the effect depends on the amount of these acids we consume and a higher intake of calcium may be necessary if large quantities of foods containing oxalic and/or phytic acids are eaten. Diets high in protein and also high in salt also increase the requirement for calcium.

Osteoporosis, a decrease in the density of the bone, is a disease that becomes especially evident in women after the menopause, and is responsible for many serious bone fractures that occur in this group. It is associated with a decrease of calcium in the bones and may be due to an imbalance between calcium and phosphorus earlier in life. Obtaining adequate calcium and avoiding factors that adversely affect calcium balance throughout life may be helpful in preventing the development of this disease. In old age it may be difficult to replace lost bone calcium.

Contrary to popular belief, fingernail changes are not an indicator of inadequate calcium intake.

CALCIUM INTAKE

Recommended daily dietary intake of calcium (Australia):

Infants:

Children:

Adult men:

Adult women:

Pregnancy (3rd trimester):

Lactation:

1100 milligrams

1200 milligrams

300-500 milligrams

700-1200 milligrams

800 milligrams

800-1000 milligrams

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vitamin C

Contents of this page:

Alternative names   

ascorbic acid

Definition    Return to top

A water-soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development.

Food sources    Return to top

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is found in green peppers, citrus fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, turnip greens and other greens, sweet and white potatoes, and cantaloupe. Most other fruits and vegetables contain some vitamin C; fish and milk contain small amounts.

Functions    Return to top

Vitamin C promotes healthy teeth and gums, helps in the absorption of iron, aids in the maintenance of normal connective tissue, and promotes wound healing. It also helps the body's immune system.

Recommendations    Return to top

Recommended daily allowances (RDAs) are defined as the levels of intake of essential nutrients that, on the basis of scientific knowledge, the Food and Nutrition Board judges to be adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons.

The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid.

Vitamin C should be consumed every day, since it is not a fat-soluble vitamin, and cannot be stored for later use. It is water soluble, and is therefore excreted regularly through the urine by the body.

Specific recommendations for each vitamin depend on age, gender, and other factors (such as pregnancy).  The U.S. Department of Agriculture has a PDF file that lists these recommendations.

Side effects    Return to top

A deficiency of vitamin C causes the disease scurvy, which is rare in the United States.

Toxicity does not normally occur, since vitamin C is water soluble and is regularly excreted by the body.  Recent studies have shown, however, that excessive doses of vitamin C (i.e., more than the RDA) can lead to toxicity.  The most common manifestations of vitamin C toxicity are kidney stones, and in very rare circumstances, anemia (caused by interference with vitamin B12 absorption).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002404.htm

 

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Oral candidiasis (adult)

Contents of this page:

Illustrations

Mouth anatomy

 

Candida, flourescent stain

 

Alternative names    Return to top

candidiasis - oral (adult); adult oral candidiasis

Definition    Return to top

A yeast infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth and tongue.

Causes and risks    Return to top

Candida albicans is the organism that causes oral candidiasis and other forms of infection. It is an opportunistic organism meaning that it invades only when the conditions for its growth are optimal.

Oral thrush is a form of oral candidiasis that is frequently seen in infants and is not considered abnormal. However, oral candidiasis in adults should always be considered abnormal and occurs only when conditions that depress the immune system are present. These include AIDS, immunosuppression for transplant recipients, individuals in chemotherapy, diabetes, advanced age, generalized poor health, and inherited abnormalities of the immune system.

Classical symptoms of oral candidiasis include the appearance of whitish velvety plaques on the mucous membranes of the mouth and tongue. If the whitish material is scraped away the base may be red (erythematous) with pinpoint bleeding.

In immunocompromised people the infection may be massive, coating much of the surface of the mouth and tongue. In addition it may spread to the esophagus producing esophagitis candida with resulting painful difficult swallowing. Ultimately, the infection may become disseminated throughout the body.

The incidence of oral candidiasis in adults has increased dramatically with the spread of AIDS. HIV infected people are at high risk for oral candidiasis which often may be one of the first signs of HIV infection. (Note: in women, persistent or recurrent candidal vulvovaginitis may be a presenting sign of HIV infection).

Hard figures on the incidence of oral candidiasis in adults are not available but the incidence is thought to have doubled in the last decade. Extension of candidal infection is also seen more frequently including disseminated candidiasis (throughout the body). The death rate from disseminated candidiasis may reach 70%.

Prevention    Return to top

There are no specific preventative measures available for adult oral candidiasis. Instead, the underlying cause must be determined and corrected whenever possible.

AIDS is a special case as it is considered a sexually-transmitted disease and is somewhat preventable by appropriate sexual behavior and avoidance of blood exposure. See AIDS.

Symptoms    Return to top

Signs and tests    Return to top

Treatment    Return to top

There are two facets to treatment of adult oral candidiasis. The first is to improve the immune status of the individual. For example, in diabetics, good control of the diabetes may be enough to clear the infection without other treatment.

In people with AIDS it may not be possible to improve immune functioning. Then, powerful antifungal medications may be required.

The second facet is the direct treatment of the infection. Topical antifungal agents include:

These drugs are applied directly to the oral lesions or used as a liquid wash.

Resistant infections or infections in which dissemination has already taken place are treated with IV medications such as:

Prognosis    Return to top

Adult oral candidiasis can be cured. However, the long term outlook is dependent on the immune status of the individual and the cause of the immune deficit.

Complications    Return to top

Call your health care provider if    Return to top

You develop symptoms suggestive of oral candidiasis. If you have participated in high risk sexual activity at some time in the past, often as many as 5 to 10 years previously, and have developed any types of lesions in the mouth evaluation by a physician is indicated.

Update Date: 3/23/01

Updated by: adam.com Medical Illustration Team

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Vaginal yeast infection

Contents of this page:

Illustrations

Normal uterine anatomy (cut section)

 

Yeast Infections

 

Candida, flourescent stain

 

Reproductive anatomy, female

 

Alternative names    Return to top

yeast infection of the vagina; candidiasis; monilial vaginitis

Definition    Return to top

A vaginal infection caused by the fungal organism, Candida albicans.

Causes and risks    Return to top

Candida albicans is a widespread organism with worldwide distribution. It is normally found in small amounts in the vagina, the mouth, the digestive tract, and on the skin without causing disease or symptoms (approximately 25% of women without disease symptoms have this organism present).

Symptoms appear when the balance between the normal microorganisms of the vagina is lost, and the C. albicans population becomes larger in relation to the other microorganism populations. This happens when the environment (the vagina) has certain favorable conditions that allow growth and nourishment of C. albicans. An environment that makes it difficult for the other microorganisms to survive may also cause an imbalance and lead to a yeast infection.

Yeast infection may follow a course of antibiotics (particularly tetracycline) that were prescribed for another purpose. The antibiotics change the normal "balance" between organisms in the vagina by suppressing the growth of protective bacteria that normally have an antifungal effect.

Infection is common among women who use estrogen-containing birth control pills and among women who are pregnant. This is due to the increased level of estrogen in the body. The increased hormone level causes changes in the vaginal environment that make it perfect for fungal growth and nourishment.

Yeast infections may also occur in association with diabetes or problems that affect the immune system (such as AIDS or the HIV virus).

Vaginal candidiasis is not considered a sexually transmitted disease. However, 12% to 15% of men will develop symptoms such as itching and penile rash following sexual contact with an infected partner.

Close attention should be paid to episodes of vaginal candidiasis. Repeat infections that occur immediately following therapy, or a persistent yeast infection that does not respond to therapy, may be the first or, at least, an early sign that an individual is infected with HIV.

Both males and females with HIV infection who have developed AIDS may be subject to disseminated infection with Candida, including oral candidiasis (in the mouth), esophageal candidiasis (in the esophagus), and cutaneous candidiasis (on the skin).

Prevention    Return to top

Avoid persistent and excessive moisture in the genital area by wearing underwear or pantyhose with cotton crotches, and loose fitting slacks. Avoid wearing wet bathing suits or exercise clothing for long periods of time, and wash them after each use.

Symptoms    Return to top

Signs and tests    Return to top

A pelvic examination will be performed. It may show inflammation of the skin of the vulva, within the vagina, and on the cervix. The examining physician may find dry, white plaques on the vaginal wall.

A wet prep (microscopic evaluation of vaginal discharge) shows Candida.

Treatment    Return to top

Generally, the first incidence of yeast infection should be treated by your health care provider. After the first infection, if a second infection occurs and is unquestionably a yeast infection, self-treatment may be initiated with over-the-counter vaginal creams such as miconazole or clotrimazole. Persistent symptoms should be evaluated by your gynecologist or primary health care provider.

Cranberry juice and yogurt are two foods that may help prevent the occurrence of yeast infections and aid in their treatment.

Prognosis    Return to top

The symptoms usually disappear completely with adequate treatment.

Complications    Return to top

Chronic or recurrent infections may occur. This may be from inadequate treatment or self-reinfection.

Secondary infection may occur. Intense or prolonged scratching may cause the skin of the vulva to become cracked and raw, making it more susceptible to infection.

Call your health care provider if    Return to top

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if this is the first time that vaginal yeast infection symptoms have occurred or if you are unsure if you have a yeast infection. (If you are sure that you have a yeast infection, you can treat the disorder with over-the-counter medications.)

Call your health care provider if symptoms are unresponsive to self-treatment with recommended vaginal creams, or if other symptoms are present.

Update Date: 2/9/00

Updated by: J. Gordon Lambert, MD, Associate Medical Director; RxRemedy

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This microscopic film shows a fluorescent stain of Candida. Candida is a yeast (fungus) that causes mild disease, but in immunocompromised individuals it may cause life-threatening illness. (Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control.)

 

 

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Vegetarianism

Contents of this page:

Alternative names   

Lacto-ovovegetarian; Semi-vegetarian; Partial vegetarian; Vegan; Lacto-vegetarian

Definition    Return to top

Functions    Return to top

The diet may be adopted for a variety of reasons, including religious or political beliefs, economics, or the desire to consume a more healthful diet.

The American Dietetic Association states that a well-planned vegetarian diet can be consistent with good nutritional intake. Dietary recommendations vary with the type of vegetarian diet. For children and adolescents these diets require special planning, because it may be difficult to obtain all the nutrients required for growth and development. Nutrients that may be lacking in a vegetarian's diet are Protein, Vitamin B12, Vitamin D, Riboflavin, Calcium, Zinc, and Iron.

Eating protein, which is made up of smaller chemicals called amino acids, is necessary for good health. There are two types of proteins, complete and incomplete. Complete proteins contain adequate amounts of the essential amino acids needed for health; they are found in animal products (e.g., meats, milk, fish, eggs). Incomplete proteins contain all of the essential amino acids, but not in adequate amounts. These proteins generally have one amino acid in insufficient quantity (the limiting amino acid). Grains and beans are sources of incomplete proteins.

You don't have to eat animal products to get complete proteins in the diet. You can mix two incomplete proteins or an incomplete protein with a complete protein to get all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts. Some combinations are milk and cereal, peanut butter and bread, beans and rice, beans and corn tortillas, and macaroni and cheese.

Integrating the vegetarian style of eating into a non-vegetarian diet is recommended for individuals wishing to choose a healthier diet. For example, a person may choose to eat meat once a day or as little as twice a week.

Recommendations    Return to top

Vegetarian diets that include some animal products (lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovovegetarian) are nutritionally sound. Vegan diets require careful planning in order to obtain adequate amounts of required nutrients. The following are recommendations for feeding vegetarian children.

Sample Vegan menu for a toddler.

Breakfast:
3/4 cup fortified (with calcium and vitamins) soy formula
1/2 cup cooked cereal
1/2 peach

Snack:
1 Tablespoon of peanut butter and crackers

Lunch:
Bean Burrito (1/2 flour tortilla with 1/4 cup beans)
1/4 cup steamed broccoli
peanut butter cookie (eggless)
3/4 cup fortified soy formula

Snack:
1/2 banana

Dinner:
1/2 cup spaghetti with 1/4 cup lentil spaghetti sauce
spinach salad with french dressing
1 slice of french bread with margarine

Bedtime snack:
3/4 cup of fortified soy milk
1/2 cup rice and 2 tsp. of molasses (good iron source)

Update Date: 2/6/01

Updated by: Monica Zangwill, M.D., M.P.H., Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

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Food sources    Return to top

Vitamin A comes from animal sources such as eggs and meat, and is present in the form of a precursor called beta-carotene, when manufactured by plants.

Vitamin A is found in milk, cheese, cream, liver, kidney, cod and halibut fish oil. All of these sources, except for skim milk that has been fortified with vitamin A, are high in saturated fat and cholesterol. The vegetable sources of beta-carotene are fat and cholesterol free. The body regulates the conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A based on the body's needs. Sources of beta-carotene are carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, winter squashes, cantaloupe, pink grapefruit, apricots, broccoli, spinach, and most dark green, leafy vegetables. The more intense the color of a fruit or vegetable, the higher the beta-carotene content.

Functions    Return to top

Vitamin A helps in the formation and maintenance of healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin. It is also known as retinol because it generates the pigments in the retina.

Vitamin A promotes good vision, especially in dim light. It may also be required for reproduction and lactation. Beta carotene, which has antioxidant properties, is a precursor to vitamin A.

Recommendations    Return to top

Recommended daily allowances (RDAs) are the levels of essential nutrients that the Food and Nutrition Board judges as adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of almost all healthy persons.

The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid.

Side effects    Return to top

Vitamin A deficiency can increase the susceptibility to infectious diseases, as well as cause vision problems.

Large doses of vitamin A can be toxic. They can also cause abnormal fetal development in pregnant women. Increased amounts of beta-carotene can turn the color of skin to yellow or orange. The skin color returns to normal once the increased intake of beta-carotene is reduced.

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Vitamin B-12 level

Contents of this page:

Definition   

A test to determine the level of vitamin B-12 in the blood.

How the test is performed    Return to top

Adult or child:
Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet (an elastic band) or blood pressure cuff is placed around the upper arm to apply pressure and restrict blood flow through the vein. This causes veins below the tourniquet to distend (fill with blood). A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. During the procedure, the tourniquet is removed to restore circulation. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.

Infant or young child:
The area is cleansed with antiseptic and punctured with a sharp needle or a lancet. The blood may be collected in a pipette (small glass tube), on a slide, onto a test strip, or into a small container. Cotton or a bandage may be applied to the puncture site if there is any continued bleeding.

How to prepare for the test    Return to top

Fast for 6 to 8 hours before the test. Consult with the health care provider if you are using medications that may affect test results, including colchicine, neomycin, para-aminosalicylic acid, and phenytoin.

Infants and children:
The physical and psychological preparation you can provide for this or any test or procedure depends on your child's age, interests, previous experience, and level of trust. For specific information regarding how you can prepare your child, see the following topics as they correspond to your child's age:

How it feels    Return to top

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.

Risks    Return to top

Risks associated with venipuncture are slight:

Why the test is performed    Return to top

This test is most often performed when other tests (which may include CBC, RBC indices, reticulocyte count, blood smear, or others) indicate the presence of a megaloblastic anemia.

Pernicious anemia is the megaloblastic anemia caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency.

This test may also be performed as part of the testing to determine the cause of nervous system disorders.

Normal values    Return to top

Note: pg/ml = picogram per milliliter

What abnormal results mean    Return to top

Values of less than 100 pg/ml (picogram per milliliter) indicate a clinically significant deficiency of vitamin B12 (symptoms are likely to be present or develop).

Causes of deficiency B12 include:

Increased vitamin B12 levels are uncommon, because normally excessive B12 is excreted in the urine. However, it may occur with disorders that affect the levels of proteins that bind vitamin B12 in the serum, including:

Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:

Cost    Return to top

The estimated cost is $48.

Special considerations    Return to top

In testing for megaloblastic anemias of any sort, serum or red blood cell folate levels are usually also obtained.

Assay for blood levels of vitamin B12 has become much more accurate within the past few years because of improved testing abilities (a fewer number of false-normal values are obtained, only biologically active B12 is measured).

The cause of a vitamin B12 deficiency is usually determined by the Schilling test.

Hemolysis of the blood sample (rupture of some of the red blood cells) may affect test results.

Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.

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Vitamin B12

Contents of this page:

Definition   

A water-soluble vitamin; part of the vitamin B complex.

Food sources    Return to top

Vitamin B12 is found in eggs, meat, poultry, shellfish, and milk and milk products.

Functions    Return to top

Vitamin B12, like the other B vitamins, is important for metabolism. It helps in the formation of red blood cells and in the maintenance of the central nervous system.

Recommendations    Return to top

Recommended daily allowances (RDAs) are defined as the levels of intake of essential nutrients that, on the basis of scientific knowledge, the Food and Nutrition Board judges to be adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons.

The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid.

Since vitamin B12 comes primarily from animal products, people following a strict vegetarian diet ( i.e., not consuming eggs or dairy products) may require vitamin B12 supplements. Non-animal sources of vitamin B12 exist, but are highly variable in their B12 content, and are therefore unreliable sources.

Specific recommendations for each vitamin depend on age, gender, and other factors (such as pregnancy).  The U.S. Department of Agriculture has a PDF file that lists these recommendations.

Side effects    Return to top

Because the body stores several years’ worth of vitamin B12, nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 is extremely rare.  An inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the intestinal tract can, however, occur.  This can be caused by a disease known as pernicious anemia.  Low levels of B-12 can cause anemia as well as numbness or tingling in the extremities or other neurologic symptoms.

Update Date: 2/8/01

Updated by: Aparna Oltikar, M.D., Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

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The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2000 adam.com, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

 

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Vitamin B6

Contents of this page:

Alternative names   

Pyridoxine; Deficiency - vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Definition    Return to top

A water-soluble vitamin; part of the vitamin B complex.

Food sources    Return to top

Vitamin B-6 is found in beans, nuts, legumes, eggs, meats, fish, whole grains, and fortified breads and cereals.

Functions    Return to top

Vitamin B-6 plays a role in the synthesis of antibodies in the immune system. It helps maintain normal nerve function and acts in the formation of red blood cells. It is also required for the chemical reactions of proteins. The higher the protein intake, the more the need for vitamin B6.

Recommendations    Return to top

The average diet supplies adequate quantities of vitamin B6.

Side effects    Return to top

Large doses of vitamin B6 can cause neurological disorders and numbness. Deficiency of this vitamin is not common in the United States.

Update Date: 2/4/01

Updated by: Aparna Oltikar, M.D., Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

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The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2000 adam.com, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

 

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Alternative names   

Vitamin B1 (thiamine); Diet and thiamine; Deficiency - vitamin B1 (thiamine)

Definition    Return to top

One of the B vitamins, a group of water-soluble vitamins that participate in many of the chemical reactions in the body.

Thiamine is important in the production of energy.

Food sources    Return to top

Thiamine (vitamin B1) is found in fortified breads, cereals, pasta, whole grains (especially wheat germ), lean meats (especially pork), fish, dried beans, peas, and soybeans. Dairy products and milk, fruits, and vegetables are not very high in thiamine. However, when they are consumed in large amounts, they become a significant source.

Functions    Return to top

Thiamine (vitamin B1) helps the body cells convert carbohydrates into energy. It is also essential for the functioning of the heart, muscles, and nervous system.

Recommendations    Return to top

Recommended daily allowances (RDAs) are the levels of essential nutrients that the Food and Nutrition Board has judged meet the known nutrient needs of almost all healthy persons.

The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid.

Side effects    Return to top

A deficiency of thiamine can cause weakness, fatigue, psychosis, and nerve damage. Thiamine deficiency is most commonly seen in alcoholics. A total absence of thiamine can cause the disease called beriberi, which is very rare in the United States. There is no known toxicity to thiamine.

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Potassium in diet

Contents of this page:

Alternative names   

diet and potassium

Definition    Return to top

Potassium is a mineral that is involved in both electrical and cellular functions in the body. (In the body it is classified as an electrolyte).

Food sources    Return to top

Fish such as salmon, cod, flounder, and sardines are good sources of potassium. Various other types of meats also contain potassium.

Vegetables including broccoli, peas, lima beans, tomatoes, potatoes (especially their skins), and leafy green vegetables such as spinach, lettuce and parsley contain potassium.

Fruits that contain significant sources of potassium are citrus fruits (such as oranges), apples, bananas, and apricots (dried apricots contain more than fresh apricots).

Functions    Return to top

Potassium is a very important mineral to the human body.  It assists in the regulation of the acid-base and water balance in the blood and the body tissues.  It assists in protein synthesis from amino acids and in carbohydrate metabolism.  It is necessary for the building of muscle and for normal body growth.

Recommendations    Return to top

There is no recommended daily allowance for potassium although experts recommend approximately 2 to 2.5 grams per day. The average American diet provides 2 to 6 grams of potassium per day.

Over-the-counter potassium supplements provide 99 milligrams of potassium per tablet. Potassium supplementation should be based on medical prescription and should never be taken without the approval of a health care provider.

Side effects    Return to top

A deficiency of potassium (hypokalemia) can occur in people with chronic disease or as a result of the aging process.  The most common problems associated with reduced potassium levels are hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, depression, and fatigue.  A variety of conditions can cause the loss of potassium from the body. The most common of these conditions are vomiting, diarrhea, and other gastrointestinal problems.

Renal disease (such as acute renal failure) and diabetes, depending on the stage of either, can also cause fluctuations in the levels of potassium.  Additionally, many medications can cause depletion of potassium (such as diuretics, cortisone, prolonged use of aspirin, and laxatives). 

The most common symptom of potassium depletion is fatigue. Other symptoms of potassium deficiency include slow reflexes, muscle weakness, and dry skin.  A quick loss of potassium could lead to cardiac arrhythmias. 

Severe potassium deficiency symptoms include decreased heart rate, extreme muscle weakness, bone fragility and, if untreated, death. A low level of potassium can be determined with a blood test and can be treated with potassium supplements.

Increased levels of potassium in the blood is known as hyperkalemia.   Some common causes of this are reduced renal (kidney) function, an abnormal breakdown of protein, and severe infection.  If there is no pathological cause for increased potassium levels, the kidneys are able to handle a large amount of potassium, and prevent the blood levels from increasing.

Update Date: 2/11/01

Updated by: Aparna Oltikar, M.D., Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

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Definition    Return to top

Chromium is an essential mineral that is not made by the body and must be obtained from the diet.

Food sources    Return to top

The best source of chromium is brewer's yeast, but a large percentage of individuals do not tolerate brewer's yeast because it causes abdominal distention (a "bloated" feeling) and nausea. 

Other good sources of chromium are beef, liver, eggs, chicken, oysters, wheat germ, green peppers, apples, bananas, spinach, and butter.  Black pepper and molasses are also good sources of chromium, but they are normally consumed only in small amounts.

Functions    Return to top

Chromium is important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.  Chromium stimulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis and is an activator of several enzymes.

Recommendations    Return to top

There are no specific recommended dietary allowances for chromium.  The safe and adequate daily dietary intakes of chromium are:

The average adult intake in the U.S. is approximately 0.1 milligrams.

Side effects    Return to top

Chromium deficiency may show itself as impaired glucose tolerance.  It is seen in older people with non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and in infants with protein-calorie malnutrition.  Supplementation of chromium helps with management of these conditions, but supplementation is not a substitute for other diabetes treatment.

Because of the low absorption and high excretion rate of chromium, toxicity is not common in humans

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Calcium in diet

Contents of this page:

Alternative names   

diet and calcium

Definition    Return to top

The most plentiful mineral found in the human body; calcium accounts for 1.5 to 2% of an adult's total body weight. The teeth and the bones contain the majority of the body's calcium (about 99%). Calcium in these tissues is concentrated in the form of calcium phosphate salts. Body tissues, blood, and other body fluids contain the remaining calcium (1%).

Food sources    Return to top

Many foods contain calcium but dairy products are the most significant source. Milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cheeses, and buttermilk contain a more efficiently absorbed form of calcium.

The fat content of dairy products is a concern for adults and children over the age of two (for children between the ages of 1 and 2 years old, whole milk or 4% is recommended). You can easily reduce the fat content of dairy products while maintaining the calcium content by selecting low-fat (2% or 1%) or skim milk. The calcium is not contained in the "fat portion" of milk, so removing the fat will not affect the calcium content. In fact, when you replace the fat portion that has been removed with an equal part of skimmed milk, you are actually increasing the calcium content. Therefore, one cup of skim or non-fat milk will have more calcium than one cup of whole milk because the entire cup of skim milk is the made up of the calcium-containing portion!

Other dairy products such as yogurt, most cheeses, and buttermilk are excellent sources of calcium and are available in low-fat or fat-free versions.

Milk is also a good source of phosphorus and magnesium, which help the body absorb and use the calcium more effectively. Vitamin D is also essential for efficient utilization of calcium; milk is fortified with vitamin D for this reason.

Green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, collards, kale, mustard greens, turnip greens, and bok choy or Chinese cabbage are good sources of calcium. Certain green, leafy vegetables are less effective sources of calcium. While their calcium content appears to be high, their fiber and oxalic acid content interferes with the absorption of calcium.

Other sources of calcium are salmon and sardines canned with their soft bones. Shellfish, almonds, Brazil nuts, and dried beans are also sources of calcium. It is difficult, however, to eat adequate quantities of these foods to achieve optimal calcium intake.

Several food products, such as breads and orange juice, are enriched with calcium to make them a significant source of calcium for people whose dairy product consumption is inadequate.

Functions    Return to top

Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human body. The bones in the human body incorporate calcium into their structure. Bones, like other tissues in the body, are continually being reabsorbed and re-formed. Teeth are also calcified tissues. They incorporate calcium in their structure in a manner similar to bones. Calcium is essential for the formation of and maintenance of healthy teeth.

Calcium has other functions in addition to maintaining healthy teeth and bones. Blood coagulation, transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction and relaxation, normal heart beat, stimulation of hormone secretion, activation of enzyme reactions, as well as other functions all require small amounts of calcium.

Recommendations    Return to top

Calcium recommendations vary depending on age and special needs. In addition, levels of estrogen can affect calcium needs in women.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture has a PDF file that lists these recommendations.

Vitamin D is required for adequate amounts of calcium to be absorbed into the body, and for adequate calcium levels to be maintained.  Therefore, when choosing calcium supplements, those that also contain the RDA of vitamin D are preferred.

Comparing the RDA to the food sources of calcium helps to put the RDA in perspective:

A total intake of up to 2,000 milligrams per day from dietary sources and supplements appears to be safe. The preferred source of calcium is calcium-rich foods such as dairy products.

Side effects    Return to top

Increased calcium intake for limited periods does not normally cause toxic effects. The urine and the feces easily eliminate any excess calcium. However, an increased risk of kidney stones in persons susceptible to them has been associated with chronically high calcium intake.

Low intakes of calcium for prolonged periods of time can lead to calcium deficiency. This condition leads to osteoporosis, loss of the jaw bone (and secondary oral health problems), hypertension, and other disorders.

Persons with lactose intolerance have trouble digesting lactose, the sugar in milk. Lactose intolerance is due to an inability to produce lactase, the enzyme that digests milk sugar. The wall of the gastrointestinal tract normally produces this enzyme. In some people, due to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or to hereditary factors, this enzyme cannot be produced by the body.  Fortunately, lactase can be synthetically produced and bought in various over-the-counter formulations, and taken orally with milk to aid in its digestion. You can also buy "lactose-free" milk at most grocery stores.

In rare instances, some people have a true allergy to the protein in milk. This condition requires restriction of all dairy products. These individuals may have trouble obtaining enough calcium in their diet and may need to take calcium supplements.

Update Date: 2/11/01

Updated by: Aparna Oltikar, M.D., Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

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The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2000 adam.com, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

 

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U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894
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Last updated: 16 May 2001

A water-soluble vitamin; part of the vitamin B complex.

Food sources    Return to top

Vitamin B12 is found in eggs, meat, poultry, shellfish, and milk and milk products.

Functions    Return to top

Vitamin B12, like the other B vitamins, is important for metabolism. It helps in the formation of red blood cells and in the maintenance of the central nervous system.

Recommendations    Return to top

Recommended daily allowances (RDAs) are defined as the levels of intake of essential nutrients that, on the basis of scientific knowledge, the Food and Nutrition Board judges to be adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons.

The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid.

Since vitamin B12 comes primarily from animal products, people following a strict vegetarian diet ( i.e., not consuming eggs or dairy products) may require vitamin B12 supplements. Non-animal sources of vitamin B12 exist, but are highly variable in their B12 content, and are therefore unreliable sources.

Specific recommendations for each vitamin depend on age, gender, and other factors (such as pregnancy).  The U.S. Department of Agriculture has a PDF file that lists these recommendations.

Side effects    Return to top

Because the body stores several years’ worth of vitamin B12, nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 is extremely rare.  An inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the intestinal tract can, however, occur.  This can be caused by a disease known as pernicious anemia.  Low levels of B-12 can cause anemia as well as numbness or tingling in the extremities or other neurologic symptoms.

Update Date: 2/8/01

Updated by: Aparna Oltikar, M.D., Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

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Vitamins

Contents of this page:

Definition   

A group of substances essential for normal metabolism; growth and development; and regulation of cell function.

Vitamins work together with enzymes, co-factors (substances that assist enzymes), and other substances.

Food sources    Return to top

Vitamins are obtained from food, except for vitamin D and vitamin K, which the body can synthesize.

There are 13 vitamins needed by the body: Vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and biotin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate).

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Vitamin A is found in milk, cheese, cream, liver, kidney, and cod and halibut fish oil. All of these sources, except for fortified skim milk, are high in saturated fat and cholesterol.  However, vegetable sources of a vitamin A precursor called beta carotene are fat and cholesterol free. The body regulates the conversion of beta carotene to vitamin A based on the body's needs. Beta carotene comes from carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, winter squashes, cantaloupe, pink grapefruit, apricots, broccoli, spinach and most dark green leafy vegetables. The more intense the color of a fruit or vegetable, the higher the beta carotene content.

Vitamin D is found in cheese, butter, margarine, cream, fortified milk (all milk in the United States is fortified with Vitamin D), fish, oysters, and fortified cereals. The body can synthesize vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunshine.

Vitamin E is found in wheat germ, corn, nuts, seeds, olives, spinach, asparagus, and other green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils (corn, sunflower, soybean, and cottonseed) and products made from them such as margarine.

Vitamin K is found in cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, and other green leafy vegetables, cereals, soybeans, and other vegetables. Bacteria in the intestines normally also produce vitamin K.

WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is found in fortified breads, cereals, pasta, whole grains (especially wheat germ), lean meats (especially pork), fish, dried beans, peas, and soybeans. Dairy products and milk, fruits, and vegetables are not very high in thiamine, but when consumed in large amounts they become a significant source.

Niacin (vitamin B3) is found in dairy products, poultry, fish, lean meats, nuts, and eggs. Legumes and enriched breads and cereals also supply some niacin.

Folate is found in green, leafy vegetables.

Vitamin B12 is found in eggs, meat, poultry, shellfish, and milk and milk products.

Pantothenic acid and biotin are found in eggs, fish, milk and milk products, whole-grain cereals, legumes, yeast, broccoli and other vegetables in the cabbage family, white and sweet potatoes, lean beef, and other foods.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is found in citrus fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, turnip greens and other greens, sweet and white potatoes, and cantaloupe. Most other fruits and vegetables contain some vitamin C; fish and milk contain small amounts.

Functions    Return to top

Each vitamin has specific functions. If a certain vitamin is deficient, a deficiency disease results.

Vitamin A helps in the formation and maintenance of healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin. It is also known as retinol because it generates the pigments that are necessary for the working of the retina. It promotes good vision, especially in dim light. Vitamin A may also be required for reproduction and lactation. Beta carotene is a precursor to vitamin A; it has antioxidant properties.

Thiamine (B1) helps the body cells convert carbohydrates into energy. It is also essential for the functioning of the heart and for healthy nerve cells and the brain.

Riboflavin (B2) works with the other B vitamins and is important for body growth and red cell production. Similar to thiamine, it helps in releasing energy from carbohydrates.

Vitamin B6 is also known as pyridoxine. The more protein a person eats, the more B6 is required to use the protein. It helps in the formation of red blood cells and in the maintenance of normal brain function. It also assists in the synthesizing of antibodies in the immune system.

Vitamin B12, like the other B vitamins, is important for metabolism. It helps in the formation of red blood cells and in the maintenance of the central nervous system.

Pantothenic acid and biotin: pantothenic acid is essential for the metabolism of food. It is also essential in the synthesis of hormones and cholesterol. Biotin is essential for the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, and in the synthesis of hormones and cholesterol.

Folate (Folic acid) works with vitamin B12 in the production of red blood cells. It is necessary for the synthesis of DNA, which controls heredity as well as tissue growth and cell function.

Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid. It promotes healthy teeth and gums, helps in the absorption of iron, and helps maintain normal connective tissue. It also promotes wound healing.

Vitamin D is also known as the "sunshine vitamin" since it is manufactured by the body after being exposed to sunshine. Ten to fifteen minutes of sunshine three times weekly is adequate to produce the body's requirement of vitamin D. It promotes the body's absorption of calcium, which is essential for the normal development of healthy teeth and bones. It also helps maintain adequate blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, which are minerals.

Vitamin E is also known as tocopherol; it is an antioxidant. It is also important in the formation of red blood cells and the use of vitamin K.

Vitamin K is known as the clotting vitamin, because without it blood would not coagulate. Some studies indicate that it helps in maintaining strong bones in the elderly.

Recommendations    Return to top

Recommended daily allowances (RDAs), are defined as the levels of intake of essential nutrients that, on the basis of scientific knowledge, the Food and Nutrition Board judges to be adequate to meet the known nutritional needs of practically all healthy people.

The best way to get the daily requirement of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the food guide pyramid.

Specific recommendations for each vitamin depend on age, gender, and other factors (such as pregnancy). The U.S. Department of Agriculture has a PDF file that lists these recommendations.

Side effects    Return to top

See the individual vitamins.

Update Date: 2/5/01

Updated by: Aparna Oltikar, M.D., Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

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The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2000 adam.com, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

 

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All information on these pages is copyright © Sandra Goodman and may not be reproduced in any form without prior written permission.

Germanium -
The health and life enhancer
by Sandra Goodman, Ph.D.

The safe new health supplement with the power to strengthen the body's immune system, enrich its oxygen supplies and free it from toxic substances.


Note to readers

Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15

References

Positive Health

 

Chapter 12:

Issues Of Interest To The Consumer Of Organic Germanium


Why Hasn't Germanium Been Heard Of Before Now?

Many individuals outside the nutritional and clinical research fields may never have heard of Germanium before, except perhaps as the material that transistors used to be made of. I had not heard of the therapeutic effects of this trace element until I began to delve into the literature that has accumulated over the last decade. I have been puzzled by the fact that information about this substance had not been more generally available before the present time. A combination of factors, including the following, are probably responsible:

1.        Researchers in the various clinics, companies and laboratories have been pre-occupied in their research, developing their product or testing of the substance. Much of this research has been performed in Japan, where organic Germanium has been more widely available and familiar to the public. Their research results were, however, published in the scientific literature, which is in the public domain;

2.        Individuals doing corporate research for propriety purposes maintain a fairly high degree of confidentiality in their research;

3.        There is usually a lag time before information in the scientific journals gets "translated" into the more general literature. It is simply a matter of time before a certain "critical mass" of information accumulates to enable people to put together the various pieces of individual research.

The "pieces" of the Germanium puzzle started to come together at the First International Conference on Germanium, organized by Sanum-Kehlbeck and held at Hanover, West Germany in October 1984, which brought together researchers from Japan, Europe and the US to discuss the various aspects of organic Germanium. Since then, North American nutritionists have formed the Germanium Institute of North America (GINA) to disseminate information and further clinical research with organic Germanium (48,50).

This international cooperation of scientists, clinicians and nutritionists in the field of organic Germanium research has had a synergistic effect in furthering clinical researh and disseminating information to the public about the health-enhancing effects of this substance (32-34,46,49).

Germanium Content In Food

In 1967, Shroeder and Balassa published a paper (92) which documented that Germanium is biologically ubiquitous. They surveyed all manner of biological material, from seafood (oysters, clams, shrimp, salmon, tuna, etc.), meat (pork, chicken beef, lamb), dairy products, grains (rye, wheat, rice, oats), vegetables (beans, carrots, broccoli, cauliflower, tomato, etc.) nuts, beverages (tea, coffee, cocoa), oils, even cat food and cigarettes (Turkish and Canadian!). The data showed that Germanium was present in trace amounts in most foods. Only clams, canned tuna, baked beans (the highest content with 4.67 ppm) and Welch's tomato juice contained more than 2ppm. Daily Germanium intake varied according to diet, with ovo-vegetarian and high protein diets containing 3.2 and 0.866 mg respectively.

Later analyses, using more sophisticated technology, revealed merely trace amounts of Germanium in plants used for Chinese Medicine (69). This paper published by Mino et al in 1980 has vital bearing on all of the Germanium work. These researchers used flameless atomic absorption spectrometry combined with solvent extraction, which is a much more sensitive technique than used by either Asai or Schroeder. Some of the same medicinal plants were assayed by this procedure.

"Germanium contents in medicinal plants, e.g. Ginseng radix, selected on the basis of Asai's report, were less than 6 ppb in every case. The results obtained indicate that medicinal plants in general contain small amounts of germanium, and suggest that there may be no connection between the pharmacological effects of the medicinal plants and their germanium contents......The analytical values in this experiment were much lower than those of Asai's report and even than those given in Schroeder's report. The method used by Asai was not clear. The measurements of Schroeder were ......with phenylfluorone as a color-forming agent. This colorimetry (detection limit, 0.5ppm) has such low sensitivity that the values obtained 0.1-1.0 ppm must be considered as unreliable. Therefore the germanium contents in other biomaterials should also be reinvestigated by the present procedure using flameless AAS."

Reports of high Germanium content in certain plants and herbs, including garlic and ginseng, have started to appear in magazine articles (46). The original results obtained by Asai have been superceded by more sensitive methods, and attention should be made to not perpetuate erroneous figures in the literature. The suggestion to reevaluate Germanium content in biomaterials should be heeded, in light of the above-quoted report. In any case, even the values obtained by Asai do not constitute therapeutic doses, which he himself acknowledged (2).

Is Germanium An Essential Mineral?

The average daily human intake of Germanium, in the mg range, is not a minute quantity. However, Germanium's essentiality as a mineral to the body's metabolism has yet to be established; thus, it cannot be ascertained what if any disorders may arise from a Germanium deficiency. Also, there is considerable ignorance about Germanium's metabolic role in the body (111).

It was not so long ago that we were ignorant of the essential role of vitamins, minerals and trace minerals, DNA, the substance genes were made of, how genetic information is translated into proteins, the existence of elementary particles such as quarks, gluons, mesons etc., etc., etc. Recognition of ignorance is often a vital first step to the establishment of any intelligent plan to find out the answer to a question.
Research such as that reported herein about the modulation by Sanumgerman of the glutathione enzyme complex is a tangible step towards answering this question, as would be research assessing pathologies resulting from Germanium deficiencies as well asthe basic metabolism of Germanium by humans and animals.

An entire area open to research investigation is the potential therapeutic effects of organic Germanium on livestock. Supplementation of livestock feed with trace elements such as selenium have achieved significant effects in alleviating many serious disorders. Investigations of abundance of Germanium in soils would provide much useful information that would cross fertilize the human clinical research information.

Natural Sources Of Germanium

As stated above, Germanium is a ubiquitous trace element, and is present in almost all foodstuffs in micro trace amounts in the ppm or ppb range. However, in order to obtain enough Germanium to exert a therapeutic effect, one would have to consume enormous quantities of foods. It is this realization which drove Dr. Asai to labour for almost two decades to develop a synthetic form of organic Germanium, in which task he succeeded in 1967. Therefore, in order to obtain organic Germanium in supplemental or therapeutic dosages, one will have to use organic Germanium supplements.

Food Supplement Or Drug

Organic Germanium is virtually nontoxic and is presently being sold as a food supplement in Europe, the UK and the US. Organic Germanium's therapeutic properties might lead it to be classified as a drug in the future, depending on the complex factors and regulations governing nutritional supplements, therapeutic claims, and profits which stand to be made by organic Germanium manufacturers. Were this to happen, organic Germanium could be marketed more lucratively as a drug, and not be confined to the less profitable vitamin market.

If this were to happen, it would definitely benefit manufacturers of organic Germanium; however, consumers would lose out on their ability to purchase, over-the-counter, this safe and therapeutically beneficial trace mineral.

With more information being disseminated about the uses of organic Germanium, consumer and practitioner pressure could probably stop organic Germanium from being designated purely as a drug. This would not, of course prevent practitioners from prescribing organic Germanium to patients on prescription.

Patent And Trademark Issues

The Asai organization does not make any Ge-132 available for export. Therefore any Ge-132 used outside of the Asai Germanium Clinic is manufactured from other sources. There are three patented processes for the manufacture of Ge-132 in Japan, all of which have expired in Japan. However, there is still an extant American patent for the manufacture of Ge-132, which is also the trademarked name for the Asai form of Germanium sesquioxide. Therefore, any Germanium imported into the United States which uses the Asai process is infringing upon this patent (67). However, neither of the two suppliers of organic Germaniumin the UK, Global Marketing, which obtains its supplies from Sanyo, and Inpa, with its stock from Sanum-Kehlbeck, are in violation of this patent. The tradenames Ge Oxy-132 and Germanooxyd are both registered trademarks.

Why Is Organic Germanium So Expensive?

A first reaction to buying organic Germanium could be shock at the price. The prices range from below 30p per capsule for lower dosages to well in excess of £1 per capsule for higher doses. The broadness of this price range presented is based on the difficulties of comparing different products containing varying amounts of elemental Germanium. However, although organic Germanium is still considerably more expensive than most vitamins and minerals, it is less expensive than most prescription drugs. The drug market being orders of magnitude more lucrative than the supplement market, the manufacturers of organic Germanium would undoubtedly prefer to market this product as a drug.

Germanium is expensive to extract from the earth. It is extracted as Germanium concentrates from the smelting of sulphidic ores such as copper, lead and zinc, which enriches its concentration from 10ppm to 50 ppm. Following steps such as alkaline refinement, it is enriched to 500 ppm. Several additional processes are required to obtain the raw materials for the synthesis of organic Germanium. This establishes a high base price. Then it must be synthesisized to the organic form, which involves complex and expensive machinery and a large number of synthesis stages. Final purification procedures necessary to bring the product up to the utmost high-grade quality are also costly. For Ge-132, if the elemental content is merely 40% instead of 42%, the price is reduced by one third, but there is significant contamination by other metals. Superimposed upon this are the substantial research expenses which have been occurred to carry out tests for tonxicity and therapeutic activity. At present, all the organic Germanium products available are quite expensive, compared to most other supplements. In view of this product's therapeutic effects, however, it is certainly worth the price, providing that the quality is beyond reproach.

Quality Of Organic Germanium Supplements

This is a most important consideration. The two types of high quality organic Germanium available are the Ge-132 variety, and Sanumgerman. Inorganic Germanium, such as Germanium dioxide, may be toxic. Testing by an analytical laboratory of several organic Germanium products available from various sources who use Global Marketing's Ge Oxy-132 revealed significant discrepancies between the stated elemental Germanium content and what was actually found in the analysis (test results disclosed by Sanum-Kehlbeck). The deviations ranged from 25% less than to 19.6% more than the amount of Ge-132 which ought to have been present. The reasons proposed by Sanum-Kehlbeck for these discrepancies were:

1.        The capsules were not filled with the stated quantity of Ge-132.

2.        The used Ge-132 compound did not contain the prescribed 42.8% elemental Ge; instead the amount contained what was disclosed in the tests, 32% and 51.2% being the two extremes.

The existence of these deviations has been disclosed to Global Marketing, who state their intention to provide a pure and high quality source of organic Germanium.

Protocol For Analyses Of Germanium Samples

Testing for purity of organic germanium samples is costly and complex. The Germanium Institute of North America (GINA) has published a protocol for analysis which uses the following maintechniques:

1.        Titration, which assesses the amount of acid carboxyl groups present in the sample molecule, which can be compared with a fixed theoretical value for Ge-132.

2.        NMR (Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). This technique provides a "molecular fingerprint" of the molecule as a function of the paramagnetic properties of the molecule's protons.

3.        X-Ray (Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Analysis). This technique measures the sample's elemental content, based on energy arrays dispersed by the element's outer shell electrons in response to excitation by an X-Ray beam.

Occasionally, as adjuncts to the three main technicques, ICP (Inductive Coupled Plasma Emision Spectroscopy), Emission Spectrography and Wet Chemical Analyses are also performed.

GINA states in its published protocol that "no one of these three main tests can by itself establish the level of purity of a sample...nor is any other single test available, such as infrared spectroscopy or atomic absorption, to our knowledge adequate to assess these samples."

GINA also makes the claim that the only form of germanium with proven efficacy for humans and proven lack of toxicity is Ge-132. The research, toxicity and clinical data of other organic Germanium products such as Sanumgerman clearly establish their efficacy and lack of toxicity alongside with Ge-132. Fear-engendering and merely partially truthful statements by organisations such as GINA to practitioners and the public at this early stage of germanium's appearance as a nutritional supplement will do little to inspire confidence or professional credibility within this fledgling industry.

The precise methodologies necessary for accurate testing of the purity of organic germanium samples should be a matter for the industry experts to establish, standardize and maintain, in order to bring into existence international cooperation in this vital area of quality control. It behooves all the manufacturers, distributors and clinicians to establish and agree upon an international standard of testing and quality assurance for organic germanium samples.

Centres Of Organic Germanium Research

Japan

In 1978, a nation-wide organication, composed of many research and medical institutions was inaugurated in Japan to "deepen the research on Ge-132 from both the fundamental and clinical aspects" (Mizushima, 1985). The Japanese are currently conducting three double blind randomized clinical trials on organic Germanium's efficacy in lung and gastrointestinal cancers and shingles, a herpes virus disease. There has also been discussions of research with organic Germanium on AIDS in Japan.

The Asai Germanium Clinic is located at Murata Building 5F, 6-4-14 Seijo Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157.

Europe

Clinics, Universities and Research Centres throughout Eastern and western Europe have been researching and clinically testing Sanumgerman for about ten years in collaboration with Sanum-Kehlbeck, Postfach 322, 2812 Hoya, West Germany. The distribution company for Sanum-Kehlbeck's organic germanium products is called Inpa AG.

Dr. Gunter Paetz, General Practitioner and Homeopath, Hamburger Str 26, 3170 Gifhorn, West-Germany is familiar with the organic Germanium research in Europe (78).

Advice To The Consumer

The consumer should be well aware of the commercial competition at stake with organic Germanium products, so that he/she can avoid any inferior products and demand certification of the highest quality of any organic Germanium they wish to purchase.

When purchasing organic Germanium, be certain that it is in fact organic and not inorganic Germanium. Be especially mindful that it is of the highest quality. Ask to see the analytical specifications attesting to its purity. Deal only with reputable and honest dealers.

       

http://www.positivehealth.com/permit/Articles/Nutrition/Germanium/chapter12.htm

 

Reversing Candida Yeast - The Answer



The majority of people who have Candida Yeast do not even realize they have it until they become seriously ill.  It is estimated that over half of the worlds population has a moderate to serious Candida condition, due to the over use of antibiotics.  There are many programs, books and products on the market, all promising either control or relief from Candida and its symptoms, but only one has the answer to reversing the multiple problems associated with this serious illness.  You do not have to be bothered with Candida Yeast infections anymore; the answer is "MHVAC Colloidal Silver." MHVAC CS will will destroy and remove any excessive Candida yeast buildup in the small and large intestine.  Once this is accomplished it will then remove the infection systemically from the tissues.

Cause and Effect

Overgrowth of Candida results in the condition known as "Candidiasis," which commonly produces localized symptoms by invading the tissues of the mouth, gastrointestinal tracts, vaginal area, urinary tract, prostate gland, skin, fingernails and toenails.  Normally , a healthy immune system controls Candida levels.  However, circumstances may occur that can permit an excessive yeast overgrowth, such as prolonged use of antibiotics, medicines, steroids, birth control pills and excessive sugar intake. (Candida loves sugar)

The major waste product of yeast cell activity is ACETALDEHYDE.  Candida can multiply very quickly and after many years of growth, the buildup of acetaldehyde toxins can be overwhelming to the body tissues.  The poison is transformed into ethanol and converted by the liver to alcohol.  This depletes the body of magnesium and potassium which reduces cell energy.  These two minerals are absolutely essential for tissue strength and integrity.

Candida is an incredible destroyer of health and is the main missing link in many of our modern day diseases and sub-health conditions.  The fact that Candida can rob the body of its nutrition and poison the tissues with its toxins is a major contribution, directly or indirectly to the following list of possible serious conditions:
 

Acne

Heart Irregularities

Adrenal / Thyroid Exhaustion

Hemorrhoids

Anti-social Behavior

Hormonal Imbalance

Asthma/Bronchitis

Hyperactivity

Bad Breath/Body Odor

Indigestion

Bladder/Urinary Infections

Inflammatory Conditions

Bone Loss

Insomnia

Bruise Easily

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Burning Eyes

Intestinal Pain

Chemical Sensitivity

Iron Deficiency

Cold/Shaky

Joint Pain

Colds & Flue

Lethargic/Laziness

Colitis

Low Blood Sugar

Constipation

Lupus-Type Symptoms

Depression

Malabsorption

Diarrhea

Menstrual Problems

Dizziness

Mood Swings

Dry Mouth/Eyes

Muscle Aches/Degeneration

Dry Skin & Itching

No Sex Drive

Endometriosis

Numbness

Epstein Barr Virus

Over & Under Weight

Extreme Mineral Deficiency

Over -all aches & Pains

Eyesight Problems

PMS Symptoms

Fatigue, Chronic

Poor Memory

Finger/Toenail Fungus

Premature Aging

Food Cravings

Puffy Eyes

Frequent Infections

Respiratory Problems

Gas/Bloating

Skin Rash & Hives

Hair Loss

Thrush/Gum Receding

Hay Fever/Sinus Inflammation

Tingling Sensations

Headaches/Migraines

Ulcers

Heartburn

Vaginal Yeast Infections

 

 

Fibromyalgia

Many people who suffer with Fibromyalgia & CFS have many of the symptoms listed above. They are unaware what serious effects Candida can have on your system.  Over all body pain can come and go due to the fact that Candida will curl the nerve endings causing painful joints and muscles.  See MY Story.

Moveable Symptoms

The majority of vaginal and sinus yeast infections are caused by circulating toxins in the blood from the Candida feeding in the intestines.  One of the most interesting observations about a yeast infection is the appearance of moveable symptoms.  You may have a pain or discomfort or possibly a burning sensation somewhere in the lower or upper abdomen for a certain period of time such as a few minutes or even an hour or two.  Then it will disappear and show up somewhere else in a different part of the body.  It might start in the stomach area or the shoulder or lower back or even in an arm or neck area.  Then, a little later it will move to another place in the body and possibly keep moving from area to area.  Then disappear Completely, but only to reappear later after eating or may not come back until the next day.

Systemic Degeneration

Candida is a negative Yeast infection that begins in the digestive system and little by little spreads to other parts of the body.  It is a strong invasive parasite that attaches itself to the intestinal wall and becomes a permanent resident of your internal organs.  It is causing numerous health problems and discomfort for over 30 million men and women in the US every day and is estimated that nearly everyone has or will have a moderate to serious Candida condition eventually in their lives.
An autopsy done on a women  who had died of heart failure for no apparent reason, found that her heart was totally encased with Candida yeast.  Vaginal yeast infections are more prevalent today than ever, and they will never completely go away until the yeast has been cleared from the intestinal area.  To make matters worse, Candida can be sexually transmitted from one person to another or be made worse because seamen is high in fructose.  Candida symptoms to look for: Dark bags under the eyes, pinkness around each fingernail, coated tongue - usually a slimy white or yellowish coating on tongue, sores or redness around mouth called oral "thrush", vaginal sores and itching, fungus under fingernails & toenail, rashes that come and go and appear in different areas and gas & bloating.  To detect Candida you can have a stool test taken.

The Answer

The Majority of external yeast conditions are caused and supported by the internal digestive condition. If you remove the yeast intestinally, it will disappearexternally almost automatically. The superiority of "MHVAC Colloidal Silver" in destroying Candida is due to the fact that it is 100%bio-available.
Because the particles produced by this MHVAC process are so small, and so consistent in size, there are millions more particles per ounce than in colloidal silver of the same ppm, produced by the DC process.  This makes them far more "bio-available," allowing a far larger number of particles to travel through the smallest veins and capillaries, penetrating tissue, reaching deep into the cellular level of the body, where the virulent bacteria and virus reside. This "bio-availability" translates directly into "vastly increased potency."   Our Candida removal system will teach you "How to get from here - to Healthy" and will remove it from all areas of the body completely & permanently.  Please email me and we can help suggest a protocol that will work for you.


"Getting well is easy!  It is just a matter of STOPPING what you did that make you sick, and STARTING new programs that will make you healthy."
                                                                                                                             Russ


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Gewoon Genietend Gifvrij Gezond dieet en verzorging (G4dv) | Naturally, Happily, Healthily, Toxin Free Diet and Care (e4dc) | Index | Information on vaccinations on this website: | Information on cancer on this website | links | Wie ben ik? Who am I? | OOR4U Guilde | Voorwoord en Inleiding Geraffineerdesuikergevoeligheid, en contactgegevens Scentses | | Wat is geraffineerdesuikergevoeligheid en Waarom worden bij geraffineerdesuikergevoeligheid sommige suikers wel en andere niet verdragen? | Wat is suiker? Bouw van suikers/koolhydraten | Snelle en langzame suikers | Bloedsuikerspiegel en hormonen | Wat is het verschil tussen tot nu toe omschreven hypoglykemie en geraffineerdesuikergevoeligheid? | Het verschil tussen hypo's en hypers bij suikerziekte , bij hypoglykemie en die bij geraffineerdesuikergevoeligheid. Waarom blijft de adrenaline reactie aanhouden?Hoe is het mogelijk dat er zo snel na geraffineerdesuiker inname al een reactie plaat | Verschillende soorten hypoglykemie en andere hormoongebonden complicaties bij geraffineerde koolhydraten vertering/opname en bloedsuiker instandhouding Overeenkomsten en Verschillen tussen Geraffineerdesuikergevoeligheid en ADHD | Kunstmatige suikers | Geraffineerdesuikergevoeligheid in de praktijk | Gifvrij dieet en Gifvrije verzorging | Waarom is de informatievoorziening over E-nummers en plotselinge extreme humeurigheid na inname van geraffineerde suiker zo gebrekkig?Misinformatie en schijnonderzoeken over plotselinge extreme humeurigheid na inname van geraffineerde suikerInformatieve | Informatievervuiling: Onwetendheid, Slordigheid, of Opzettelijke Misleiding? | Conclusie | Bronverwijzingen | Bijlagen 1 t/m 7monosachariden, 2. Disachariden, 3 polyol, 4 producten met aspartaam, 5 Giftige E nummers in degelijk lijkende produkten, 6 Safety card Natronloog of te wel E524, toevoeging van sommige cacao merken!, 7 Soja, | Appendix 8 Sucralose | Bijlage 9 Vitaminen, Mineralen, Sporenelementen, Eiwitten, Vetten, Koolhydraten in Voedingsmiddelen, Kruiden | Bijlage 10 Toxic Ingredients You Should Avoid | Bijlage 11 Bijwerkingen Ritalin(Methylfenidraat) | Bijlage 12 Aspartaam, hoe een stof wat gaten in de hersens van muizen brandt veilig voor menselijke consumptie werd bevonden. | Bijlage 13 Hypoglycemia | Bijlage 14 Budwig | Bijlage 14a Geitenmelk: waarom het lichter verteerbaar is dan koemelk | Bijlage 15 E nummers | Bijlage 16 Cadeaus om te vermijden | Bijlage 17: Dieetmaatregelen tegen kanker | Bijlage 18 "Hoe tanden in elkaar zitten." | Bijlage 19 kankercellen uitroeien door suikers te vervangen door gezonde vetten | bijlage 20 meer over kankergenezing | bijlage 21 Zuurzak Soursop | Bijlage 22 Crisis en oplossingen: roggker=recht op gezondheid, geluk, kennis en rechtvaardigheid | Bijlage 23 Milieuschandalen (hier stond eerst de G4dv, die is verplaatst naar de beginpagina) | Bijlage 24 Het Echte Nieuws over gif in het milieu | Bijlage 24 a Hout | Bijlage 25 vooronderzoek dieet en verzorging | Bijlage 25 a.Vooronderzoek dieet en verzorging | Bijlage 25 b Vooronderzoek dieet en verzorging | Bijlage 25c Vooronderzoekdieet en verzorging | Bijlage 25 d vooronderzoek dieet en verzorging | Bijlage 25 e vooronderzoek dieet en verzorging | Bijlage 26 Vooronderzoek TVtandpasta | Bijlage 27 Voorbeelden van de denkfout in de Westerse Medische Wetenschap, waardoor ze steeds de plank misslaan als het aankomt op bepalen wat gezonde voeding is: Calcium en beta caroteen | Bijlage 28 Kruiden | Bijlage 29 Vitamines, Mineralen, eiwitten, vetten em koolhydraten | bijlage 31 Schema voedingsmiddelen:vitamines, mineralen, eiwitten, vetten en koolhydraten | Bijlage 32 Schema Bedenkelijke stoffen, E-nummers, toevoegingen, giffen | Bijlage 33 kankerbestrijding | bijlage 34 Het gevaar van pinda's | Bijlage 35 Proteïnen in yoghurt | Bijlage 36 Eten uit de natuur | Bijlage 37 Superfoods: a.Aloë Vera, b.Omega 3-6-9 olie, c.Kefir, d.Kombucha, e.Yoghurt, f.Cranberrysap,g. Gember, h.walnoten, i. zonnebloempitten, j. bosbessen, k.zeewier, l.wortelsap, m.ginkgobiloba,n. guldenroede, o.peu dárco, p. driekleurig | Bijlage 37 a. Aloe Vera | Bijlage 37.b. Omega 3 saus | Bijlage 37. c Zelf Kefir maken | Bijlage 38 The Problem with Wheat | Bijlage 39 Waarom Himalayazout? | Bijlage 40 Benefits of Goats milk over Cows milk | Bijlage 41 The problem with most vegetable oils and margarine | bijlage 42 for healthy bones calcium, vitamin D, vitamine k2, magnesium, trace elements | Bijlage 43 The dangers of acrylamide (carbohydrates baked above 210 degrees Celcius) | Bijlage 44 Gevaren van plastic, aluminium en andere verpakkingsmaterialen | bijlage 45 Dangers of Fishoil and better sources for omega 3 | bijlage 46 fruit tegen kanker (aardbeien, cranberries etc) | bijlage 47 Hoog tijd voor een nieuwe schijf van 5 | bijlage 48 Uitleg hoe inentingen autisme veroorzaken door glutamaat productie in de hersenen te stimuleren wat schadelijk is voor de hersenen en voor de hersen ontwikkeling | bijlage 49 Korte Geschiedenis van Monsanto, pagina van Dr Mercola± In Amerika vechten ze voor wat hier heel gewoon is±etiketten waar op staat wat er in voedsel zit. | Bijlage 50 Nep ADHD diagnoses | Bijlage 51 Vrouw vertelt over uitgelekt NASA document over oorlog tegen de mensheid | bijlage 52 Bij medicijn dat zogenaamd cholesterol verlaagd juist 52$ hogere kans op plak in de aderen rondom het hart/ 52@ higher chance of heart plaque when tajking certain cholesterol lowering medicines. | Bijlage 53 Welke oliën zijn veilig om te verhitten? | Bijlage 54 Dr Mercola over Genetisch Gemanipuleerd voedsel | bijlage 55 Dr Mercola: genetisch gemanipuleerd voedsel: ontworpen om insecten te doden, maar het maakt ook onze cellen kapot. | Bijlage 56 Dr Mercola Alzeheimer detectie methode, en g4dv ook preventief voor Alzheimer | Bijlage 57 Het einde van het antibiotisch tijdperk aangebroken door toenemend aantal antibiotica resistente bacteriën, Ook hierop is de g4dv een antwoord. | Bijlage 58 Vaccinaties gaan om geld, niet om ziektebestrijding | Bijlage 59 Artikel Dr. Mercola over kankerverwekkende zaken in persoonlijke verzorgings- en huishoud producten | Bijlage 60 Dr. Mercola: Pesticiden kunnen neurologische schade aanrichten, gebruik liever etherische olie voor huisdieren en plant liever goudsbloem in de tuin | Bijlage 61 5 miljoen chronisch zieken in Nederland, zorg VS ook waardeloos | Bijlage 62 Gevaar vaccinaties | Bijlage 63: Gevaren antibiotica in vlees (artikel va Dr. Mercola) | Bijlage 64: Gevaren Testosteron behandeling | Bijlage 65 transvetten zijn de boosdoeners, verzadigde vetten zijn juist goed! (Dr Mercola) | Bijlage 66: Hippocrates Health Institute | Bijlage 68:NVWA hoge boetes voor gezondheidsclaims | Bijlage 69: Voor een gezond hart heb je gezonde vetten nodig | Bijlage 70 Eieren moet je bewaren op kamer temeratuur, niet in de koelkast! | Bijlage 71: Gevaren van niet gefilterd water | Bijlage 67:Boetes voor het zeggen dat iets buiten de farmaceutische industrie gunstig voor de gezondheid is | Bijlage 72 Vitamine D bronnen | Bijlage 73 Chiazaad voedingsinformatie | Bijlage 74: Voordelen van gefermenteerd voedsel | Bijlage 75 9 voedingsmiddelen die je nooit moet eten | Bijlage 76 Top 10 artikelen van Dr. Mercola van 2013 | Bijlage 77: Dr Mercola: De beste wapens tegen griep. | bijlage 78 The secret of longevity | bijlage 79 Het Grote Vaccinatie Debat 15 december 2013 | Appendix 80 Lead Developer Of HPV Vaccines Comes Clean, Warns Parents & Young Girls It?s All A Giant Deadly Scam | Biijlage 81 How Grazing Cows Can Save the Planet, and Other Surprising Ways of Healing the Earth | Bijlage 82 De Verborgen Gevaren van Vaccinaties | Bijlage 83 CDC Admits as Many as 30 Million Americans Could be at Risk for Cancer Due to Polio Vaccine | Bijlage 84 We hebben 100 keer meer microben dan cellen in ons lichaam. De meeste helpen ons. Zullen we hun ook helpen? | Bijlage 85 Belang van licht en slaap | Bijlage 86 Artikel Dr Mercola over vergissingen in voeding die tot voedings tekorten leiden. | Bijlage 87 In Amerika beïnvloedt Junkfoodindustrie diëtistenopleidingen | bijlage 88 Dr Coldwell: Elke kanker kan in 2 tot 16 weken genezen worden | Bijlage 89: Want to Know over Tetanus | Appendix 90: Dr. Russel Blaylock | Bijlage 91 Wat zijn opvliegers? | Bijlage 92, Dr Mercola: One in 25 Patients End Up with Hospital-Acquired Infections, CDC Warns | Bijlage 93 Dr Mercola Toxic Combo of Roundup and Fertilizers Blamed for Tens of Thousands of Deaths | Bijlqge 94 New Studies Show Optimizing Vitamin D Levels May Double Chances of Surviving Breast Cancer, Lower LDL Cholesterol, and Helps Prevent Autism | Bijlage 95, Dr.Mercola: How Vitamin D Performance Testing Can Help Optimize Your Health | Bijlage 96: Be Wary About This Food - It Can Wreck Your Ability to Walk, Talk, and Think | Bijlage 97 Gevaren van Vaccinaties (Mercola) | Bijlage 98: Ouders moeten geïnformeerd worden over de gevaren van vaccineren om een goede keus te kunnen maken | Bijlag 99: Zonnebrandmiddelen gevaarlijker dan zon als het gaat om huidkanker | Bijlage 100 Ignoring This Inflammatory Early Warning Signal Could Cost Your Life | Bijlage 101 Mijd Giffen, Niet Voedingsmiddelen! | Bijlage 102 Mentale rust | Bijlage 103: Voordelen van Kurkuma | Bijlage 104: Dr Mercola article Kruid tegen kanker | Bijlage 105: Dr Mercola: Sun , vitamin D and vitamin B3 crucial for longevity | Bijlage 106 Cowspiracy film en kritiek | Bijlage 107 Artemesia een effectief anti-malaria kruid | Bijlage 108, Chemotherapie is gevaarlijk | Bijlage 109 Canola oil, what is it, and is it good or bad for people? | Bijlage 110 Are peanuts good or bad for you? | Bijlage 111 Halloween recipes | Bijlage 112 Vaccinatieschade | Bijlage 113 Immigrants seek herbal remedies | Bijlage 114 more_doctors_confessing_to_intentionally_diagnosing_healthy_people_with_cancer | Bijlage 115 Dangers of vaccinating pregnant women | Bijlage 116 Omega 3-6-9 mengsel | Bijlage 117 Waarom er geen koolzaadolie zit in het omega 3-6-9- mengsel van de g4dv | Bijlage 118 Vaccinaties | Bijlage 119 Judy Wilyman, PhD on amti vaccination | Bijlage 120 Wetenschappelijke argumenten die de Keshe scam blootleggen | Bijlage 121 ECEH bacterie | Bijlage 122 grains | Bijlage 123 Make your own chocolate | Bijlage 124 Vaccine Violence | Bijlage 125 Italian court rules mercury and aluminum in vaccines cause autism: US media continues total blackout of medical truth | Bijlage 126 Dr Mercola: Vaccines and Neurological Damage | Bijlage 127 Why many doctors do not vaccinate their own children | Appendix 128 2 centuries of officoial statistics show vaccines did not save us and These graphs show why many doctors don't vaccinate their own children and Vaccines: A Peek Underneath the Hood | Bijlage 129 Leaflet Infanrix | Bijlage 130 Vaccine Madness | Bijlage 131 Japanse slachtoffers vaccin baarmoederhalskanker slepen overheid en farmareuzen voor de rechter | Bijlage 132 Pregnancy, labour, delivery and child care | Appendix 133 healing diet for our canine friends | Bijlage 134 Flowchart edible or non-edible | Bijlage 135 Keeping children healthy naturally | Bijlage 136 Vaccines and the Amygdala | Bijlage 137 Revolving door between politics and big pharma explained | Bijlage 138 Ingredients Vaccines | Bijlage 139: Medisch scheikundige geeft drie redenen waarom hij zijn kinderen niet laat vaccineren | Bijlage 140 Ryan's story | Bijlage 141 NVKP lezingen dr Hans Moolenburgh | Bijlage 142 HPV vaccine | Bijlage 143 Fluoride | Bijlage 144 Baby dies three days after getting six vaccines | Bijlage 145 Interview Trouw met Dr Hans Moolenburgh | Bijlage 146 Jacob van Lennep | Bijlage 147 Flow chart "to believe or not to believe medical or nutritional advice" | Appendix 148 The case experts make against vaccines | Apendix 149 Dr Mercola article: Experts admit Zika threat fraud | Appendix 150 Sudden deaths among health advocates | Appendix 151 Thimerosal | appendix 152 Herd immunity? | Appendix 153 Formaldehyde in vaccines | Appendix 154 Why doctor's say "Do not take the flu shot!" | Bijlage 155 Vaccineren? Natuurlijk niet! En wel hierom: | Appendix 156 Vaccine makers bypass WHO regulations | Bijlage 157 Het probleem van overbehandeling bij borstkanker | Bijlage 158 Chemotherapie vermoordt u | Bijlage 159 Borstbesparende operatie beter dan amputatie voor overlevingskansen bij borstkanker | Appendix 160 Vaccine induced bone fractures | Bijlage 161 hulpstoffen in Vaccins toegegeven door CDC | Appendix 162 meningitis: symptoms, how to prevent, how to treat | Appendix 163 Training of nutrtionists often shady | Appendix 164 Molecular Biochemist Dr.Lucija Tomljenovic, PhD, explains why vaccines not only don't work, but are extremely harmful and can be lethal as well | Appendix 165 CDC knew about MMR vaccine autism link as early as 1999, but covered it up | Appendix 166 Scientists at the vaccine safety debate January 2011 | Appendix 167 Vaccinated children 5 times more likely to contract auto immune diseases | Appendix 168 Before and after vaccine: this is what mass brain destruction looks like | Appendix 169 Hepatitis B vaccine | Appendix 170 Countries where vaccines are not mandatory and the nazi roots of vaccines and drugcompanies | Appendix 171 The dangers of soybean oil | Appendix 172 Vaccines do not protect against Measles | Appendix 173 HPV vaccine | Appendix 174 Hoogleraar Peter Gøtzsche en anderen over corruptie in de farmaceutische industrie | Appendix 175 Dr Arlan Cage | Appendix 176 How vaccines damage your immune system | Appendix 177 Vaccines are not tested properly | Appendix 178 Documentaries exposing pharma fraud | Appendix 179 Dr Suzanne Humphries | Appendix 180 Dr Russel Blaylock: Vaccinations can kill you or ruin your life | Appendix 181 Doctors who clearly explain why vaccines are neither safe nor effective | Appendix 182 Dr Sherri Tenpenny | Appendix 183 Alan Phillips attorney Vaccine Rights | Appendix 184 Dr Rebecca Carley | Appendix 185 Vaccines bargain basement of the medical industry, says Maurice Hilleman (who developed 36 vaccins) admits AIDS and Cancer causing virusses were added to vaccines | Appendix 186 Many independent studies show vaccine dangers, Damages paid by pharmaceutical companies for vaccine damahge | Appendix 187 The truth behind Vaccinations | Appendix 188: Guess what happened to Nazi war criminals responsible for the genoside of millions: After aquittal or a short prison sentence they went back to being CEO's for big Pharma! | Appendix 189: Mercola: What?s the Right Dose of Exercise for a Longer Life? | Appendix 190 What happened to Dr Mercola? | Bijlage 191: hoofd RIVM zegt Kindervaccinaties veroorzaken hersenvliesontsteking | Appendix 192: Use up stock even though proven unsafe or use cheaper less safe vaccines | Appendix 193: WHO report reveals: Vaccines are made in China without safety control | Appendix194: Vaccine Court has paid 3.7 billion in damages to families | Appendix 195: Autism in California skyrocketed since mandatory vaccination | Appendix 196: MMR Vaccine Causes Seizures in 5,700 U.S. Children Annually | Appendix 197 The history of vaccines | Appendix 198: Studies show unvaccinated children are much helthier than vaccinated ones | Appendix 199: The vaccine-shaken baby syndrom link | Appendix 200: vaccines cause SIDS | Appendix 201: The Dangers Of Vaccines and Vaccination | Appendix 202: Vaccines and the peanut allergy epidemic | Appendix 203: The neurotoxicity of vaccines | Appendix 204: Statistics | Appendix 205:Nervous System | Appendix 206: 6 reasons to say NO to vaccination | Appendix 207: Celebrity anti vaxxers | Appendix 208 Dr John Bergman | Appendix 209 Measles: natural prevention and remedies | Appendix 210: Hepatitis B prevention and treatment | Appendix 211: Dr Shiv Chopra. PhD Microbiologist, vaccine expert | Appendix 212: Thimerosal breaks down into ethyl mercury in the body, and is 50 times more toxic than the methyl mercury found in fish | Appendix 213 Dr Dale Brown | Appendix 214 Vaccines cause autism | Appendix 215 Statistics infant mortality per country | Appendix 216: How to lower glutamate levels in the brain | Appendix 217 David Getoff | Appendix 218 Measles hypes versus facts | Appendix 219: Natural Bug and flea repellents | Appendix 220 Huisarts Hans van der Linde: Het Pillenbedrog | Bijlage 221 Voetmassagekaart | Bijlage 222 Zelf oliën maken | Appendix 223 Life expectancy Statistics | Appendix 224 Medical Mistakes

Laatste wijziging op: 01-03-2019 14:59